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Tables of societal spheres of society

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2.11. Societal spheres tables

TetraSociology's structuratics points out four basic, constant structures of the social world and any society: SIOT societal spheres (see above). They are called societal because they are the largest possible, fundamental, necessary and sufficient macro-structures, whose indissoluble unity constitute the social world. Spheres as macro-structures embrace all the social world's levels from macro- (humankind) to micro- (individual) and permeate them. Each sphere is explored in its statics, dynamics, structuratics and genetics. In conformity with them, the model for each sphere is created: static (spheres' products and PIOT resources), dynamic (spheres' PDEC processes), structural (spheres' institutions) and genetic (spheres' PDDD states). Each sphere is universal sociological model is presented as the amalgamation of four models mentioned. Below is a sketch of the model.

Chart-2. Universal sociological model of a sphere

Because of the volume of these spheres' models, we will limit ourselves to exploring o­nly the static models in the most compact form - a table. The tables of spheres, or sphere's tables are the blueprint for charting spheres of a single village, city, state, country, as well as world society. Therefore, the tables do not have empirical and statistical material, compiling which would go beyond this study's scope. Let us define briefly the sphere's tables structure.

First, the tables have two major levels, or sectors of spheres: 1.The level of people's social employment in the spheres' appropriate branches: "Social sector." 2.The level of people's individual employment in family, and of self-production, by the individual, of her needs and abilities: "Individual sector"

Second, the tables have the following columns for the following spheres' parameters: 1.Objects/Products, 2.Resources. Spheres' objects and products serve as the criteria for attributing a branch of employment or work to the appropriate sphere. Because spheres reproduce their products according to the principle of "similar from similar", spheres' objects and products coincide. The o­nly difference is in quantity and quality. For instance, Things are the technosphere's object and product, but Things-products differ from Things-objects both in quantity and in quality. Because dynamics deals with differences between the products and the objects, the static model does not distinguish between them and puts them in the same category. Resources express the sets of PIOT resources necessary for the production of the sphere product. PIOT spheres' interconnection and indissociability consist in that product "outputs" of some are resource "inputs" for the others.

Let us chart, in the tables of their statics, the permanent composition and content of each of society's four spheres: sociosphere, infosphere, orgsphere, and technosphere (economic sphere).

TABLE-1. Statics of the social sphere
(For viewing chart click o­n this link)

Table notes.

1. People/population (P) are the product of the reproduction of the sociosphere. Population are reproduced for all the four society's spheres, therefore P=P1+P2+P3+P4, where P1 designates those employed in the sociosphere, who constitute sphere humanitarian class of the employed; P2, those employed in the infosphere, who constitute sphere informational class of the employed; P3, those employed in the orgsphere, who constitute sphere organizational class of the employed; P4, those employed in the technosphere, who constitute sphere material (technical) class of the employed. An example of these classes in Russia is cited below.

2. Those employed in the sociosphere (P1), i.e. humanitarian class consists of two groups: those holding jobs in the sphere's branches (P1j), and all those who are non-working (P1n) and employed in self-production in individual sector (pre-schoolers, students, home-makers, non-working invalids and pensioners, the unemployed, etc.). A Russian P1 example is cited below.

3. Each sphere class correlates with a type of socially useful labour. P1j are engaged in humanitarian labour; P2, in informational labour; P3, organizational labour; P4, material labour.

4. The sociosphere's products P1, P2, P3, P4 represent its outputs, while its resources P1, I1, O1, T1, designated with appropriate sphere indices, represent its inputs. Products turn into resources; outputs, into inputs. Inside spheres, it is the other way round: resources turn into products; inputs, into outputs. However, these transitions make a subject not statics and dynamics characteristic not o­nly for the sociosphere but also for other spheres. The interaction between spheres as an exchange of products/resources between them along the channels of their outputs/inputs is the basis for interinclusion of TetraSociology and Sociocybernetics.

5. The numerical values of the sociosphere's sphere indices, which are the sum of the branch indices of the table's lines, enable us to use SIST informational technology for calculating the sociosphere, and to obtain a qualitatively new empirical/statistical information about it. The methods of indices summation in everyone columns of each table are various. They depend o­n sphere, branch, sector, chosen units of measurements and other factors which do this procedure extremely complex and labour-consuming.

6. Satisfaction of humanitarian needs and manifestations of humanitarian abilities of family members constitute family's humanitarian employment.

7. In the sociosphere's social sector, its branches and institutions can be divided into governmental and non-governmental, commercial and non-profit, joint-stock and non-joint-stock, and according as well to other criteria.

8. The table for the sociosphere can be used for expressing the sociosphere's qualitative composition and quantitative parameters at the most different levels, from a small village to big cities, countries, world society (each level will have a different set of branches); this enables us to compare the sociosphere's development in different cities, countries, regions. Such information serves as the basis for solving social problems in their entirety.

9. The table demonstrates that the criterion for attributing a branch or type of employment to the sociosphere consists in a common object-product, which is made up of people; each branch has a specific impact o­n them, leading to a variety of transformations in them. People represent different objects and different products for the sociosphere's branches.

10. The sociosphere's a subject of societal sociology (the sociology of societal or sphere level), which, in conformity with the sphere's object and product, can be called humanitarian sociology. Besides social statics, humanitarian sociology includes, as segments of its theory, the sociosphere's dynamics, structuratics, and genetics. The static table serves as the basis for dynamic, structural (institutional), and genetic tables and matrices of the sociosphere indices.

TABLE-2. Statics of information sphere
(For viewing chart click o­n this link)

Table notes.

1. The set of social information (I) for all the four society's spheres is a product of the reproduction of the infosphere. Therefore: I = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4, where I1 - humanitarian information is necessary for the reproduction of the people; I2 - information is necessary for the reproduction of information, which we shall name instrumental; I3 - organizational information is necessary for the reproduction of organisations; I4 - technical information is necessary for the reproduction of things, material boons. These classes of the information constitute spheres of the information or information spheres.

2. The infosphere's products I1, I2, I3, I4 represent its outputs, while its resources P2, I2, н2, T2, designated with appropriate sphere indices, represent its inputs. Products turn into resources; outputs, into inputs. Inside spheres, it is the other way round: resources turn into products; inputs, into outputs.

3. The numerical values of the infosphere's sphere indices, which are the sum of the branch indices of the table's lines, enable us to use SIST information technology for calculating the infosphere, and to obtain a qualitatively new empirical/statistical information about it.

4. Satisfaction of information needs and manifestations of information abilities of family members constitute family's information employment.

5. In the infosphere's social sector, its branches and institutions can be divided into governmental and non-governmental, commercial and non-profit, joint-stock and non-joint-stock, and according to other criteria as well.

6. The table for the infosphere can be used for expressing the infosphere's qualitative composition and quantitative parameters at the most different levels, from a small village to big cities, countries, world society (each level will have a different set of branches); this enables us to compare the infosphere's development in different cities, countries, regions. Such information serves as the basis for solving information and cultural problems in their entirety.

7. The table demonstrates that the criterion for attributing a branch or type of employment to the infosphere consists in a common object-product, which is made up of information. Information represent different objects and different products for the infosphere's branches.

8. The infosphere's a subject of societal sociology (the sociology of societal or sphere level), which, in conformity with the sphere's object and product, can be called information sociology. Besides social statics, information sociology includes, as segments of its theory, the infosphere's dynamics, structuratics, and genetics. The static table serves as the basis for dynamic, structural (institutional), and genetic tables and matrices of infosphere indices.

TABLE-3. Statics of organizational sphere
(For viewing chart click o­n this link)

Table notes.

1. The set of social organisations (O) - institutes, orders, norms - for all the four society's spheres is a product of the reproduction of the orgsphere. Therefore: O = н1 + н2 + н3 + н4, where O1 - humanitarian organizations (schools, hospitals etc.) are necessary for the reproduction of the people; O2 - information organizations are necessary for the reproduction of information; O3 - administrative organisations are necessary for the reproduction of organisations in which role all organisations act, when they are engaged self-organisation or creation of other organisations; O4 - technical organizations are necessary for the reproduction of things, material boons. These classes of the organizations constitute spheres of the organizations or organizational spheres. Each class of organizations unites 4 kinds of organizations: political, legal, financial, management. To each sphere of a society corresponds there organizational sphere of policy, right, finance, management. To each sphere corresponds there kind of such organizational tools as money: social, information, political / administrative and industrial money, formation and which features detailed are considered by Y.A.Vasilchuk[1].

2. The orgsphere's products н1, н2, н3, н4 represent its outputs, while its resources P3, I3, н3, T3 designated with appropriate sphere indices, represent its inputs. Products turn into resources; outputs, into inputs. Inside spheres, it is the other way round: resources turn into products; inputs, into outputs.

3. The numerical values of the orgsphere's sphere indices, which are the sum of the branch indices of the table's lines, enable us to use SIST information technology for calculating the orgsphere, and to obtain a qualitatively new empirical/statistical information about it.

4. Satisfaction of organisational needs and manifestations of organisational abilities of family members constitute family's organisational employment.

5. In the orgsphere's social sector, its branches and institutions (banks, finance, insurance, crediting etc.) can be divided into governmental and non-governmental, commercial and non-profit, joint-stock and non-joint-stock, and according to other criteria as well.

6. The table for the orgsphere can be used for expressing the orgsphere's qualitative composition and quantitative parameters at the most different levels, from a small village to big cities, countries, world society (each level will have a different set of branches); this enables us to compare the orgsphere's development in different cities, countries, regions. Such information serves as the basis for solving organisational (political, legal, financial, management) problems in their entirety.

7. The table demonstrates that the criterion for attributing a branch or type of employment to the orgsphere consists in a common object-product, which is made up of organisation. Organisations represent different objects and different products for the orgsphere's branches.

8. The orgsphere's a subject of societal sociology (the sociology of societal or sphere level), which, in conformity with the sphere's object and product, can be called organisational sociology. Besides social statics, organisational sociology includes, as segments of its theory, the orgsphere's dynamics, structuratics, and genetics. The static table serves as the basis for dynamic, structural (institutional), and genetic tables and matrices of orgsphere indices.

TABLE-4. Statics of technical (economic) sphere
(For viewing chart click o­n this link)

Table notes.

1. The set of social things (T), material boons (including material services) for all the four society's spheres is a product of the reproduction of the technosphere. Therefore: T = T1 + T2 + T3 + T4, where T1 - humanitarian things (habitation, foodstuffs etc.) are necessary for the reproduction of the people; T2 - information things (books, TV sets, computers etc.) are necessary for the reproduction of the information; T3 - organizational things (office equipment, office buildings etc.) are necessary for the reproduction of organisations; T4 - technical things (means of material production) are necessary for the reproduction of things, material boons. These classes of the things constitute spheres of the things, economy or economic spheres.

2. The technosphere's products T1, T2, T3, T4 represent its outputs, while its resources P4, I4, н4, T4, designated with appropriate sphere indices, represent its inputs. Products turn into resources; outputs, into inputs. Inside spheres, it is the other way round: resources turn into products; inputs, into outputs.

3. The numerical values of the technosphere's sphere indices, which are the sum of the branch indices of the table's lines, enable us to use SIST information technology for calculating the technosphere, and to obtain a qualitatively new empirical/statistical information about it.

4. Satisfaction of material needs and manifestations of material abilities of family members constitute family's material employment.

5. In the technosphere's social sector, its branches and institutions can be divided into governmental and non-governmental, commercial and non-profit, joint-stock and non-joint-stock, and according to other criteria as well.

6. The table for the technosphere can be used for expressing the technosphere's qualitative composition and quantitative parameters at the most different levels, from a small village to big cities, countries, world society (each level will have a different set of branches); this enables us to compare the technosphere's development in different cities, countries, regions. Such information serves as the basis for solving economic problems in their entirety.

7. The table demonstrates that the criterion for attributing a branch or type of employment to the technosphere consists in a common object-product, which is made up of things. Things represent different objects and different products for the technosphere's branches.

8. The technosphere's a subject of societal sociology (sociology of societal or sphere level), which, in conformity with the sphere's object and product, can be called economic sociology. Besides social statics, economic sociology includes, as segments of its theory, the technosphere's dynamics, structuratics, and genetics. The static table serves as the basis for dynamic, structural (institutional), and genetic tables and matrices of technosphere indices.

The static tables of the social world's and the individual's spheres here cover the full extent of social employment (social and individual alike, both useful and harmful, with sign both 'plus' and 'minus') at all levels, from the individual to world society, the social in its entirety. The tables enable us not o­nly to conceptually model social world, but also to quantitative calculate it along all its coordinates (resources, processes, structures, states) and o­n all levels with the help of new information technology SIST o­n the basis of TetraSociology's unique sociological statistics. The TetraSociological tables' features make it adequate to social world. This places sociology at the level of real science relevant to object. Now let us review TetraSociology's ideas regarding new social actors, capable of producing constructive harmonious responses to the century's challenges and of realising these responses in a new sociocultural technology.


[1] Vasilchuk Y.A. Social development of the individual in XX century. The factor of money // Public sciences and modernity. Moscow, 2001, 4, p.5-29.

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