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Harmony Forum

Peace from Harmony
Ahmed Mansour. Islam: religion of peace from harmony

Dr. Ahmed Subhy Mansour


 


President,

The International Quranic Center (IQC)

5314 Pillow LN , Springfield , VA , 22151
Tel: (703) 370-8137
Fax: (312) 281-2859

Email: ahmed.mansour@ahl-alquran.com
Website: www.ahl-alquran.com

 

Dr. Mansour is an Islamic Scholar who from 1980 to 1987 was Professor of Muslim History in the College of Arabic Language at Al Azhar University in Cairo.After immigrating to the U.S. (political asylum) he was a Visiting Professor of the Human Rights Program at Harvard University and a Fellow at the National Endowment for Democracy.He is the author of 24 books and approximately 500 articles in Arabic. 
 

Islam: religion of peace


Two different visions of Islam:

There are two different visions of Islam. The first is seeing Islam through its divine source, namely the Quran and the method of this vision is to understand Islam through its own terminology and language. The Arabic language as any other language is a living being whose terminology and words meaning change depending o­n the time and place, and also depending o­n the cults , the school of thought and societiesin general. Therefore he, who wants to approach Islam through its divine sources the Quran, needs to understand the Quranic language. Then to proceed without any preconceived ideas to trace the subject under research. Its essential to go through all the verses connecting to the subject being searched. Quranic verses are two kinds: [Mohkamat] or the verses that have the specific meanings, and [Motashabehat] or the verses that has details of the same subject mentioned in the first kind. Its easy to collect all the verses of [Motashabehat] and understand them by its [Mohkamat] verse of the same subject.

After such scrutiny o­ne reaches the complete and correct view of Islam without any preconceived ideas. This is the Quranic vision of Islam.

The second vision is seeing Islam throughout Muslim tradition. Its a human source as it has many resources includes the sayings ascribed to the prophet Mohammed some centuries after his death, the talesinvented to comment o­n the Quranic stories according to their point of views, and the saying of the big Muslim Scholars or the Imams of the Muslim Jurisprudence and the other scholars or Al foqahaa. By these human resources they look at the Quranic verses, and understand them accordingly.

Its clearly natural to find in these human sources contradicting opinions. Each opinion searches for supporting verses in the Quran by taking these verses out of their context and twisting their meanings according to the terminology of its tradition.


The difference between the two visions:

Since the researcher here is lead astray, its no wonder that his understanding of Islam contradicts the reality of Islam and its real vision , its implicitly out of this second vision of Islam that come the judicial Sentences fatwa which puts Islam in a position that allows it to be accused of terrorism, violence, anomalies and fanaticism.

In fact Muslim during the middle age like many others living with the mentality of the middle ages, namely with fundamentalism, fanaticism , holy wars and religious trials, and persecutions. They twisted the meanings of the Quranic verses according to their culture and mentality, along with the invention of the prophetic saying that serves their purposes. Those sayings [Hadeeth] were made holy as they were really said by the prophet Mohammed. This is the belief of the Sunni Muslims. The Shiite Muslims followed another sayings attributed to the prophet Mohammed and another sayings attributed to the relatives of the prophet Mohammed, or [Aal Al Bait]. The Sufi Muslims followed-also- the sayings of their holy saints.

Thus from this second human traditional vision of Muslims we find diversity of sources and cults , and he who chooses this traditional vision of Muslims in order to understand Islam will find nothing but mixture of Middle aged cultures; some of them full of superstitions [Sufi tradition]or violence[Sunni tradition] and the two kinds[The Shiite tradition]. But, if he goes directly to read the Quran according to its language and understand the Quran by the Quran without any preceding ideas he will be astonished to find that Islam is the religion of peace and forgiveness and all the high values.

I choose to understand Islam through the Quran as its the o­nly and the confirmed source of Islam, using a scientific method which adheres to Quranic terminology to understand the Quran by the Quran. By means of this method I have previously researched and wrote about Islam and its comparisons to the Muslim Sufi and Sunni traditions, and their history in the middle age, and their contemporary Islamic movement which purported to bring the Muslims back to the mentality of the middle ages. Now, lets try to understand Islam and its relationship with peace.

 


What about the relationship between Islam and peace?

Peace is the origin of the understanding of Islam as a religion and in Arabic word as well, and the base of the relationship between Muslims and others. Peace is also the back-bone of the Jihad laws in the Quran.

 

We start with the understanding of the word [Iman] or Belief:

 

According to the Quranic terminology and its particular language, the word believing [Aaman], has two meanings in Quranic along with the Arabic language; you can {believe in} or (Aamana be...) or you believe or trust others (Aamana le --);

The first o­ne is related to faith as in this verse the messenger believed in what was descended to him from His Lord and the believers. All believe in God, His angles, His books. His Messengers. (2: 285) thus to believe in means to have deeply rooted faith in your heart concerning the relationship between man and God.

People have had diversified faiths, even within the same religion or even within the same cult or school of thinking. And the Quranic confirms that people will be judged for the diversity of their faiths by God alone and o­nly o­n judgment day (as found in verses( 2: 113 , 3: 55 , 10 : 93 , 16 : 124 , 5 : 48 , 39 : 3 , 7: 46 ).

The second meaning the relationship between people, namely believing or trusting others, implies that when someone is safe and secure people trust him. He is also called a believer because he is trusted by the people, [Aamana laho al naas; Maamoun al janeb]. This meaning is repeated in the Quranic especially in the Quranic stories concerning the Prophets. For example in the story of Noah, the arrogant o­nes told him Shall we trust you [Anomeno Laka] while it is the meanest that follow you? (26:111). that means how can we trust you and feel secure with you seeing that you are followed by the lowest of the people. This meaning of believing that is trusting somebody is repeated in the story of Abraham (26 : 29 ), the story of Joseph (12 :17 ) the story of Moses (44 :21) and (23 : 47 ) , and also in the Quranic Narratives of the life of the prophet Mohammed in Medina ( 3 : 37 ) And (2 : 57 ).

This meaning of believing is found in other subject as well.

When somebody behaves in a trust worthy manner he became safe and secure as seen from his outward behavior. According to the Quranic terminology this person is called a believer regardless of his religion or Faith. For that matter he/she can be a Buddhist, Muslim, Christian, Jew or atheist, it is a private matter between the human and God, no creature has the authority to judge him. That is reserved to God alone o­n the Last Day.

The two meanings of the term belief were simultaneously expressed in Gods Verse concerning the prophet Mohammed that says He believes in God, has faith in the believers [Yomono bellah wa yomeno Lel momeneen] (9:61). In the Arabic language and in this Quranic verse the word [Yomeno] means the two meanings: believe in and trust. Thus this verse shows that to believe in God is to worship him alone, and to believe in others is to trust them. To believe in God is to Acknowledge he is the o­ne and o­nly. The evaluation of this faith, which many people dispute, is to take place in the Judgment Day. Therefore what concerns and should o­nly concern Humans among themselves is to live in trust, safety, security and peace.

Therefore faith in Islam is equivalent to peace among people, and in the same time being a believer means a man of God and a man of peace and trust. This is the understanding of faith in the religion of Islam.


What about the word [Islam] itself in Arabic Language and in the religion of Islam?

The understanding of Islam, as was the case with the word believe in the Quran has an outward meaning concerning the dealing with people and inward meaning concerning the relationship with God .

The inward meaning of Islam is to succumb and submit to God alone, pledging allegiance and obedience to him and him alone (6:161-163).

This meaning of Islam is the same message that came with the entire prophets in all divine Messages, and in all ancient languages until it finally appeared in Arabic in the final Divine revelation of the Quran. God doesnt accept any other religion deferent from the submission to him alone as the o­nly God. This meaning of the verse (The religion before God is Islam ) (3:19). Note that the word Islam in not capitalized o­n propose to show that the Quran is describing an attitude or a mode of being and not a specific religion. The verse continues (Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, never will it be accepted of him and in the hereafter he will be in the rank of those who had lost) (3:85). It talks here about his future o­n the Day of Judgment where God o­nly will judge all the mankind.

 

Islam is submitting to God alone in any language, any time or place and in all divine messages. Alas unfortunately, in our culture Islam was transformed into an Arabic description of a definite group in a specific epoch.

God is uninterested in the titles and divisions that people choose for them such as Muslims, Jews, Christians and Sapiens.

For this reason God confirms in two verses that those who believe in God alone as the o­nly God, and believe in the Day of Judgment as the Divine Day of absolute justice and maintain peace and perform righteous deeds as a prove of their belief in the last day; those are the Allies of God whether they are the followers of the Quran or the old and new testament (2:62, 5:69). These two verses confirm the other two verses (The religion before God is Islam) (Whoever desires a religion other than Islam, never will be accepted of him) (3:19 &85)

These verses imply that he who believes in God, the last day and performs righteous deeds in this world will be considered a Muslim in the sight of God o­n the Last Day regardless of the title he had in this world. It is up to God alone- not to us - o­n the Day of Judgment not now- to judge the faith. Any o­ne claims this right to himself is claiming divinity upon himself.

The real meaning of the inward face of Islam is submitting to God o­nly and succumbing to him alone with the language of hearts. It is the universal language that leaves no room for discord among people or believers, and based o­n this language all people will be judged o­n the last day. This is the inward meaning of Islam in dealing with the Almighty God; the Creator, or the inner meaning of the faith that lies inside the heart which will be judged by God alone o­n the Last Day.

God alone is the o­ne who can monitor the real feelings of the human heart in this life, and the o­nly o­ne who- o­n the Judgment Day- will tell us of our religious disputes. Its up to every human to choose monotheism, paganism or atheism; its his freedom of belief and he will be responsible before God alone o­n the last Day. This is about Islam in dealing with God, or the inner meaning of Islam.

Islam outwardly in dealing with people is directly related to the safety and securities expressed and practicing among people, no matter how deferent their inner believes are. God says: O you who believe inter peace wholeheartedly (2:208). Thus God ordered the believers to inter peace reign. We remember here that the salutation of Islam is peace Alsalamu alikumor Peace be upon you and that peace is o­ne of Gods wholly names [Al salam]. All of this expresses the confirmation of peace in Islam and it confirms the fact that belief also means safety and security.


Peace and security in Paradise will be for the peaceful believers:

The person who expresses and demonstrates his belief in goodnessin his dealings with people making them trust him, and in the same time has the real belief in God alone; this person would be deserving Security, and will be secured and protected by the Almighty God o­n this Horrible Day. or in the hereafter, as a reward of being trusted by the people and had a sincere belief in God alone in this life. This is the meaning of belief in Islam and its reward in the Last Day.

The same with he who practices Islam in his dealings with others and being peaceful and in the same time, realizes Islam in his relationship with God by submitting to Him his heart and his behaviors. This person would be deserving peace in the hereafter.

On this subject God says :( Its those who believe and confuse not their beliefs with wrong, for them there is a security, and they are truly guided ) (6:82). That means that those who believe in God and in the same time people trust them because they do not wrong them, will be enjoying safety and security as a reward o­n the last day. And their reward is nothing but the outcome of their deeds, God describes them in paradise, in the hereafter enjoying peace. Their greeting upon entering paradise (Enter ye here in peace and security ) (15:46). And God says about paradise that (for them will be a home of peace In the presence of their lord) (6:127).

Thus peace and security in dealing with others plus submission to believe in the o­ne God, and obedience to him alone leads to peace and security in paradise. Such is the Islamic formula as presented by the verses of Quranic. o­n the other hand, transgression and injustices inflicted o­n others and o­n god leads o­nly to Hill.


Muslims and peace in history

Now that we have clarified the relationship between the notion of peace and the understanding of Islam and its belief and faith according to the Quranic and Arabic Languages, lets turn to the relation betweenpeace and the real Islamic legislation or Shareah according to the Quran alone. Lets examine the rules of peace between Muslims and non Muslims.

But first , let s suppose that early Muslims in the time of the prophet Mohammed were against that peaceful Islam, isnt write to ignore this peaceful nature of Islam because of its Muslim human behaviors? Religion is just rules and commandments, should be applied by the believers. If those believers ignore them it will be their responsibilities, and they should be blamed, not their religion which should be responsible according to its Holy message, not to its followers human deeds.

Its not o­nly Islamic problem, but its also the problem of Christianity and Judaism, if we remember what the religious Jews and the Christians did in the Middle Ages and modern history. So, its imperative to make distinction between the religion and its human believers whose deeds are mixtures of good and bad. However, we will discover in Islam and early Muslims something different needs some explain.


Recording the Islamic History two centuries after Mohammed widened the gap between the Quran and Muslim Tradition

 The recording of the Muslim history was started and established in the Muslim empirical periods that followed the footsteps of the Persian and the roman empires. Thus the writing of their history was shaped by the concepts of power, and influenced by the Middle Aged culture of fanaticism. For that reason the gap between the Quran and the Muslim tradition was widened in terms of legislation and even in beliefs and faith.

As far as our subject is concerned we find a clear gap between what the Quran says about the early Muslims during the period of the prophet Mohammed and what was said in the recording history of the Prophet or Alsirah Alnabaweiya about the history of early Muslims and their battles.

The history of the prophet Mohammed was recorded two and more centuries after his death during the Abbasid Empire. The sira written by Ibn Isaac, Ibn Hisham, Ibn Shad, Altabary, and others mainly concentrated o­n the Muslim violence in the battles during the ruling of the prophet Mohammed.

Those old historians rooted the concept that Islam was spread by the sward. They gave the history of the prophet Mohammed the violent history of the Muslim Rulers who succeeded him and made the [great conquer] and invaded the other nations establishing the great empires. In the third empire Those old historian lived in thethird empire where they wrote the Muslim History of their time beginning by the history of the prophet Mohammed tens of decades after his death, writing it according to their culture, making this gap between what was recorded in the Quran and their hand made history. Those historians were also religious scholars invited to respond to their time by religiously legitimizing the expansion of the Muslim Empire.

Yet what is found in the Quran is something entirely different.

The starting point goes back to the Quranic term those who believed and its original meaning being Those who choose safety and security in their dealing with other even if they were persecuted and harassed by them. They are believers even if their faith does not respond to the Islamic monotheism. We understand better the intended meaning of those who believed from the verse that says (Oh you who believed! Believe in God and His messenger, and the scripture which He sent before. Any who denies God, His Angles, His Books, his messengers, and the Day of Judgment, has strayed far away. (4:136).

Thus God calls upon the believers, i.e., the peaceful o­nes to have a belief and faith in God, his prophets and his holy books. In other words, he calls upon those who chose peace to add to it the inner belief in God, His prophets, and His books.

The expression Oh you who believed does not implies any particular religious group. Its addressing those who choose peace as a way of life calling them to accept religion because He said Oh you who believed! in other words, to complement the belief in security and peace by the true sincere belief in o­ne God, His books and His prophets, and to finally be able to reach the blessing of paradise in the hereafter, namely peace and security.


The early Muslims were really peaceful.

Those peaceful believers who joined the prophet Mohammed in Mecca insisted o­n peace and o­n tolerating persecutions.

While they were in Mecca suffering, the Holy Quran revealed the aspects of their coming Muslim state which includes belief in the o­ne God, trust in Him, obeying Him, keeping prayers to Him and giving alms and conducting the direct democracy among them, then God said explaining the other aspects:(And those who, when an oppressive wrong is done to them, take revenge. The recompense for an evil is an evil; but whoever forgives and makes reconciliation, his reward is with God. Verily, He likes not the oppressors. And indeed whosoever takes revenge after he has suffered wrong, for such there is no blame against them. The blame is o­nly against those who oppress people and resort to wrong in the earth unjustly; for such there will be a painful torment. And verily, whosoever shows patience and forgiveness that would truly be from the best commandments.) (42:36 to 43).

This was to prepare them to be ready for the future when they will have to defend themselves and retaliate or to forgive and reconcile according to the futures circumstances.

Because of the severe persecution, early Muslims had to immigrate twice to Abyssinia [Ethiopia], and then immigrated to [Yathreb] or Al Madina their final immigration where they established their own state led by the prophet Mohammed and the revelation of the Quran.


Old historians ignored the peaceful nature of the early Muslims.

 After they migrated to Medina they were continuously attacked by Quraysh to force them go back to their previous idolatrous religion. Its unknown historic fact mentioned in the Quran o­nly and ignored by the old Muslim historians and scholars. No Muslim scholar in our time knows that the mighty tribe of Quraysh used to attack Al Madina and fight the peaceful Muslims inside it without any kind of self defense from the peaceful Muslims, because there had no permission from God to defend themselves.

 

If it were not for the Quranic verses descended to allow them to practice self-defense they would have being destroyed by killing. Yet, the old Muslim scholars and historians during the middle ages did not allow these verses to be taken rationally, because rationalizing about these verses would bring out meaning that they preferred to be silent about.

The verse says (Permission to fight is given to those are fought against because they have been wronged and verily God is most powerful for their aid) (22:39). This verse gives permission for self-defense in case of persecution and injustice regardless of what the religion is. God encourages self-defense and bring victory to the victims who do so.

The old Muslim scholars were oblivious to the generalization of this verse because it gives the right to any o­ne to fight for his/her freedom of religion. And since this meaning is not exactly what the middle age were about, it was be better to disregard it. They also neglected to a greatly important meaning since the followers of the prophet Mohammed were facing a dangerous enemy, if they had not been allowed to defend themselves they would have easily been completely massacred.

The Quran demonstrates here a historical reality disregarded by the historians of the Abbasid Empire. The fact is that unbelievers of Quraysh repeatedly raided Al Madina, and even killing took place, but the peaceful Muslims would not take action because they were not yet allowed to permit to do so. It was until they received the permission that they begin to defend themselves.

 

The following verse is another case where the old Muslim scholars chose not to rationalize, the next verse talks about those peaceful early Muslims saying :(those who have been expelled from their homes unjustly o­nly because they said God is o­nly Our Lord. For had it not been that God checks o­ne set of people by means of another, monasteries, churches, synagogues and mosques, In which the name of God is commemorated in a abundant measure would surely have been pulled down.) (22:40).

We understand from this verse that not o­nly did the victims face a threat of genocide, but the reason for their explosion from their homes was commemoration of Gods name, as their o­nly God and Lord.

 


In Islam: fight to defend the churches, monasteries, synagogues and mosques.

Due to the religious fanaticism during Abbasid Empire the religious scholars chose to overlook the main point of this verse, namely that all followers of the Divine messages pray to the same God, and thus all the houses of prayers are all equal to Gods eye, and if all the believers had not defended themselves altogether, their houses of prayers would not have stood up. The verse clearly mentions without differentiation the places of worship of the Christians , Jews, Muslims and others, all united by the act of the constantly commemorating Gods name.

What is of extremely importance here is that the Quran assures the need to protect and respect all these houses of prayers regardless of the disputes among all of their followers, because in spite of this disputes these houses of prayers are shelters of peace and security, or it should be so.

It is very important also to note that the mosques of the Muslims - are mentioned last. Had the Quran been biased for Islam o­nly, the verse would have said In which Gods name alone is constantly recited... but since there are non- Muslims who attached other saints and names beside God, these are also taken into account even though they clash with the Islamic monotheist faith of there are no Lord but God La illah illa ALLAH.

Therefore the aim of this verse is to put all houses of prayer belonging to all cults under protection from any violation, making it religiously accepted for any of these groups to defend themselves and their places of worship even if blood have to be shed.

 

It is clear here that the o­nly reason for the fight is to protect the freedom of belief which God grants to all mankind, no matter what the religion is, as long it is a peaceful o­ne void of any violence or transgression. Every person who builds a house of prayer has his own view and perspectives about God and worships Him accordingly. By all means these houses and the people praying in them must enjoy safety and peace regardless of the differences among them. God is the o­nly o­ne who will judge them o­n the Day of Judgment. This Islamic truth was clearly disregarded by the old scholars.


To encourage the peaceful Muslims to defend themselves
.

God said to them and to all mankind in the same sura: (Those who immigrate in the cause of God and after that were killed or died; surely, God will provide for them a good provision. And verily, its God who indeed is the best who makes the provision. Truly, He will make them enter an entrance with which they shall will be pleased, and verily, God indeed is all- Knowing, Most Forbearing. Thats so. And whoever has retaliated with the like of that which he was made to suffer, and then has again been wronged, God will surely help him. Verily, God indeed is Oft- Pardoning, Oft- Forgiving.) (22: 58 to 60). Actually, they were in need to such encouragement to get rid of the passiveness.

 


Be ready to defend yourself to achieve peace.

When the permission to fight was granted for the early Muslims, it was expected that they would rejoice with the idea of retaliation, but the opposite occurred. They had grown accustomed to passiveness and toleration of pain, so they hated the new legislation concerning Jihad- note that Jihad here implies holy war in terms of self defense- they were oblivious to the fact they needed to fight to defend themselves and to achieve peace, their own hope in this life. They didnt realize that their enemy would seize to attack them o­nce they show some resistance.

It is the o­nly way to protect yourself and your enemy is to be ready to defend yourself to prevent him from attacking you. It is the Quranic policy of deterrent. God said to them and to every peaceful state: And make ready against them all you can of power, including steeds of war to terrify the enemy of God and your enemy And if they incline to peace you must incline to it. And put your trust in God, Verily, He is the All Hearer, the All-Knower. And if they intend to deceive you, then, Verily, God is All- Sufficient for you :{ 8: 60 to 62}, by this way, you can stop any potential attack against you and save not o­nly your people, but also your enemys. It means the Quranic policy of deterrent is to serve peace, not to encourage the violence, especially when we read it in the context of all the rules of war in the Quran, which make the war o­nly to defend not to attack.

Beside this basic rule of self defense, God revealed in the Holy Quran the other rules of self defense and condemned the transgress against the peaceful people even they are your ardent enemy.


The early Muslims hated to defend themselves
.

 In spite of all these rules and their critical situation, the early Muslims in the time of the prophet Mohammed hated the permission of fighting, so God mentioned this in his Quran addressing them saying: Fighting is prescribed upon you, and you dislike it. But it is possible that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you love a thing which is bad for you. But God knows while you know not) (2:216). Here God is telling them that even though they hated fighting, but it was good for them because they needed to defend themselves, at the same time they liked to be silent and passive towards the raging war, yet it was dangerous for them.

The problem was that they had gotten accustomed to patience and peace, but it had reached a degree that was not o­nly threatening there religion. But even their existence. This Quranic clarification was not enough for them to change their attitude and to push them to prepare themselves for defense. A group among them rejected the legislation for fighting and even raised their voices asking God to postpone his command. So God answered (Have you not seen those who were told to hold back their hands from fight but established regular prayers and spend in regular charity? When at length the order for fighting was ordained to them, be hold! A section of them feared men as-or even more than-they should have feared God; they said our lord! Why have you ordained for us to fight? Would that you had granted us respite for a short period?) (4:77).

In Mecca they were ordered to refrain from self-defense and to consecrate their time and effort in praying and spending in charity. The fact that a group rejected the order to fight and asked for it to be postponed shows to what extent they were devoted to peace and hateful to bloodshed.


Early peaceful Muslims in battles
.

The battles during the period of the prophet Mohammed were the biggest proof for their tendency towards peace and their hatred for the self-defense war, when it was forced upon them. We shall demonstrate from the Quran their peaceful attitude during three main battles, Badr, Alahzab, and Al osra.


The battle of Bade
:

It was the first and the most famous.

In order to understand the real causes of this battle we must first understand what the terms [Eelaaf] or convenient of Quraysh which is mentioned in the sura of Quraysh (106:1-4). In its four verses God told that because of His sacred Mosque in Mecca, the Quryash tribe had its [Eelaaf] or trade convenient, accordingly, they used to send peacefully their trade caravans between Syria and Yemen during winter and summer, and lived without hunger or fear, while the other tribes suffered hunger and continuous wars. The same meaning was repeated in other verses :( 29:67) (28:57)

Quraysh traded with Syria and Yemen exchanging goods o­nce in the summer and o­nce in the winter. They had obtained covenant of security outside Mecca, safeguarding the caravan during their journeys between Mecca and Yemen, and between Mecca and Syria. Inside Mecca there was another type of covenant among the inhabitants; the Quraysh people had to participate in financing the two caravans, the winter and the summer o­ne. The budget, needed was divided into shares that the Quraysh people invested in. And at the end of the year they calculated the prophets of the shares and each o­ne took his earnings.

When the Muslims were forces to leave Mecca and go to Madina they lost their investments and the unbelievers confiscated all their homes and belongings.They would not dare ask for their money from the enemy who was chasing and attacking them.

When the Muslims received the right to fight it was natural that they would claim their money back. For that reason they raided the caravans which traded with their money. They hoped to get their money or the caravan without fight. However, o­n their way to meet the caravan, Muslims were promised that they would either take over the caravan or that they would win over their enemy. They went for the caravans, But soon enough an army from Quraysh came to save the caravan and kill the Muslims who happened to be few in number.

It was clear that since there were no caravans, then they would surely win the battle, as God promised them, nevertheless some of the Muslims were frightened to face the enemy in the battle. The Quran describes this situation as follows (As Your Lord caused you to go out from your home with the truth, and verily a party among the believers disliked it. Disputing with you concerning the truth, after it was made manifest, as if they were being driven to death while they were looking. Actually at it) (8:5-6).

Its clear that they hated fighting; that they were honest about their position even though God promised to support them, and when they were ordered to engage in war it was as if they could actually see death coming to seize them.

 

We need mention here that what the Quran says concerning the battle of Badr contradicts the stories written about the prophet during the Muslim Empire. In these stories the old historians confirmed that all of the Muslims of Badr were anxious to fight and no o­ne of them was doubtful about it. If it was not for the Quran we would not have known the reality of the situation.

The real situation confirms that the early Muslims were not a bunch of blood thirsty fanatics welling to die for the though, called Holy War. They were peaceful people wanted to worship God and glorify Him in peace. But the stories have been twisted around in order to use these early Muslims incorrectly, to justify using violence under the name of God. The contemporary Islamic culture has until now ignored these verses for the same cause, so most of the Islamic reality is messing and continues to be so.


In the battle of Alahzab, [The Allies]

The Unbelievers [now we understand this Quranic term means those who attack the peaceful people] surrounded Al Madina to destroy it and to genocide all the Muslims who were strongly overtaken by fear and terror. Its enough to see what the Quran has said about their state of mind; (When they came from above you and from below you, and when your eyes grew deviating, and the hearts reached to the throats, and you were harboring doubts about God,. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking.)(33:10-11). [We also understand from these verses that the term of believers has nothing to do with the faith, because they harbor doubt about God in this critical time. The o­nly meaning here is the peaceful people who hate the violence even if it is to defend their lives.]

The fear was so great that some of them run away and called others to give up and spreading the rumors. o­n the other hand some others maintained great courage. (33:12-23).


In the battle of alosra:

It was the last of the battles, the Muslims were still not eager to defend themselves against the aggressor tribes in the north of Al Madina. Here the Quran became more reprimanding in these verses :( 9:13-16) and also when he says (Oh you who believed: Why is it when you are told to mobilize in the cause of God, you become heavily attached to the ground?)(9:38). Therefore the lack of motivation, they felt in the beginning remained with them until the end of the prophets life.


Quraysh tribe converted to Islam to keep its interest:

We can realize this situation better if we understand the nature of the daily life of the Arabian tribes in that time. Violence is the o­nly key word that illustrates that life. Around the Sacred Mosque in Mecca, Every Arabic tribe had its idol under the custody of Quraysh. Quraysh controlled Mecca and the sacred Mosque and the pilgrimage, and lived in peace and prosperity while the other tribes lived in continuous blood shed for any reason and for no reason. This made Quraysh the most powerful tribe. To keep its power, the elders of Quraysh persecuted the followers of the new religion who were peaceful helpless people from Quraysh and other tribes. The new religion threatened its religious trade and its political and social situation. It was fearful for those helpless believers to face the mighty powerful tribe of Quraysh. So the o­nly way to save them from the potential total genocide is to encourage them to defend themselves.

By the time many people in many tribes converted to Islam, and helped others to realize the nonsense of worshipping the sacred tombs and sacred statues, and the nonsense of submission to Quraysh because of these false idols. Some of them wanted to get rid of Quraysh or to help the new Islamic state facing Quraysh and reducing its power and its hegemony. This threatened Qurayshs trade routs. The elders of Quraysh reconsidered their situation. To keep their political and economical interests they had to convert to Islam to use it for their continuous hegemony, especially the active people inside the Islamic state were from Quraysh including the prophet Mohammed.

So the elders of Quraysh quickly and easily surrendered and converted to Islam before the prophets death, then after about twenty years they became the new leaders of the Islamic state and led it to a new kind of wars and a new way of life, establishing the Muslim powerful Empires which ignored the real rules of Islam and its peaceful nature; the empires that lasted six centuries under the rule of the children of Qurayshy elders.


Peaceful Islam gone by Quraysh after Mohammeds death.

Lets give some details: After the Prophet Mohammeds death, the other Muslims from the other tribes who converted to Islam to war Quraysh found themselves again under the hegemony of Quraysh, so they revolted under some individuals from inside them who claimed the prophecy. This was the war of apostasy which was the perfect chance for the elders of Quraysh to maintain the leadership of the Islamic state after the death of Mohammed. Quraysh tribe- the new Muslims and the old Muslims together- led the war against the other tribes who revolted against Islam and Quraysh. By defeating them, Quraysh became the real leader of all the Arabic tribes.

To avoid other tribal revolts, Quraysh led all the Arabic tribes to fight the two super Empires; the Romans and the Persians. By defeating them both o­n the same time, Quraysh established the powerful mighty Muslim Empires which influenced the world history in the middle ages and ruled most of the world in that time according to the Middle ages culture, not according to the real values of Islam. So, the Islamic values were ignored, including peace.

During the Muslim Empires the real Islamic rules of Jihad were changed to be attacking the other peoples just to establish wealth, power and empire, but by using the name of Islam. Here we have to explain the real Jihad in Islam.


Legislation of Jihad in the Islam: -

According to the Quranic terminology Jihad is the striving of the soul and money and energy to please God by all means. So, it includes giving money to the poor people regardless of their religion and faith, and the peaceful discussion with unbelievers, and to fight them o­nly to defend yourself. (29: 8) (8: 72)(25: 52).

The Quran sets the legislation for Jihad; its commandments, its principles and its final aims.

Generally, the Quranic legislation based o­n commandments which serve principles, those principles are serving the basic Islamic aims or values. Regarding Jihad, the commandment: fight is based o­n principles of self-defense and in response to violent attack, or in the Quranic term fighting in the cause of God, while this principle is serving the final aim or value of fighting which is to assure religious freedom and prevent religious persecution.

The final aim or the great value of Jihad in Islam is to allow every person to follow the religion of his choice without any persecution. For this value or aim the Muslim state has to fight to prevent the persecution and to defend itself and its freedom of belief and speech.

By this way, every o­ne has the freedom of choice in the realm of religion and he will be responsible before God o­nly o­n the last Day according to his freedom of choice. In this life he is responsible o­nly before the society if he violates the other peoples rights.

Here are some examples to demonstrate the correct rules of Jihad:God says :( And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly God loves not transgressors) (2: 190) Here the commandment is (fight) and the principle is (in the cause of God those who fight you, but transgress not the limits. Truly God loves not transgressors).The fight in the cause of God means according to His legislation which forbids transgression. God repeated and confirm the same meaning :(...Then whoever attacks you, you may attack them to inflict an equivalent retribution. (2: 193).

The ultimate goal of this legislation in His saying: (and fight them until there is no more oppression.)(2: 193). Therefore the prevention of oppression is the essential aim for the legislation of fighting.

The oppression means in the Arabic and Quranic language:Fitnah which is used in the Quranic terminology to refer to the religious persecution committed by the unbelievers in Mecca against the early Muslims.

That persecution included the continuous fight against the peaceful early Muslim even after their escape to Al Madina. So, God says: (And oppression is worse than slaughter. And they will not cease fighting you until they turn you back from your faith if they can (2: 217).

By allowing religious freedom and preventing oppression in religion, every o­ne deals with God alone and straightly in obeying or disobeying him, and every o­ne will be responsible for his deeds this before God o­nly o­n the Day of Judgment.None else has the right to take upon for him Gods sovereignty or judge other peoples faith or to persecute those who hold deferent religious opinion. This makes the realm of religion belong to God alone without any kind of human religious authority. This is precisely what the verse calls for when it says: (And fight them until there is no more oppression and all the religion will belong to God alone.) (8: 39). God may forgive them if they refrain and stop transgression and persecution, and the Muslims have no right to attack them, otherwise they become transgressors themselves, God says: (And fight in the cause of God those who fight you, and transgress not the limits. Truly, God loves not the transgressors... But if they cease, then God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful. And fight them until there is no more oppression and the religion will belong to God. But if they cease, let be no more transgression except against the transgressors o­nly.) (2:190 to 193) This is confirmed in other verses :( 8: 38 to 40).

Obviously this legislation concerning fighting agrees with what is understood from the terms Islam of submission and peace and protects peace from any animosity or transgression.

 

Peace and freedom

This assures religious freedom. Its enough here to remember the Quranic principle: (There shall be no compulsion in religion; the truth is now distinguishable from falsehood.) (2: 256). Moreover, God said to the prophet Mohammed blaming him: (And had your Lord willed, those o­n earth would have believed, all of them together. So, will you then compel mankind until they become believers?)(10:99). This confirms the Quranic fact that the religion belongs to God alone without any human religious authority, and the prophet Mohammed has ant religious authority as its the will of God to let people exercise their freedom of choice and be responsible for this before Him alone in the Last Day. The freedom in religion is the key of democracy and freedom of thinking and speech.

 

Rules of alliance

For the first time in the Arabic Peninsula, some Arabs established a real state according to our modern definition of state. It was the first and may be the last- Islamic state in the time of the prophet Mohammed. The new Islamic state had its border and its people and its government. It had also its allies and its enemies.

Any believer in the Arabic desert wanted to be member of this state he had to immigrate to it and lived inside its border. All the believers inside this state were allies to each other against the enemies who used to attack the peaceful state. So the Quran stated to them that the believers out side the state should immigrate to the state to be a part of the state. If those outsider believers asked protection from the Islamic state, the state ought to defend them unless there was a treaty between the state and those who attacked these outsider believers. So, all believers should be allies to each other inside their state to face the unbelievers who were united and alliance against the lonely state. (8: 72 -73)

 

Inside that state there were different groups of oppositions who were against the state and its religion. The Quran called them the hypocrites. They enjoyed the freedom of speech and belief, and also the freedom of conspiracy against the state. The Holy Quran used to expose theirs plots and their inner thoughts, but in the same time order the believers to avoid them, turn aside from them as long they did not fight the state. You can find some details in these suras :( 2 :8 to 14 &204 to206 ) (3 : 118 to119 & 155 to 158 &167 to168 ) ( 3: 60 to 69 & 81 to 83 & 105 to 115 & 138 to146 ) ( 5 :52 ) ( 8: 49 ) ( 9 : 42 to 68 & 73 to 87 & 93 to 98 & 101 & 107 to 110 & 124 to 127 ) ( 24 : 11 to 26 & 46 to 54 )( 33 : 1 & 12 to 20 & 24 & 48 & 57 to 61 & 73 ) ( 37 :16 & 20 to 30 ) ( 48 : 6 & 11 to 16 ) (58 : 7 to 22) ( 59 : 11 to 16) ( 63 : 1 to 8) ( 66:9 )

 

However, those hypocrites inside Al Madina were under control but there were another kind of hypocrites who lived in the desert and used to come to the Islamic state claiming Islam, but their inner goal was to deceive Muslims. Some of them offered to ally to the state while they were real enemies to the Islamic state. Those hypocrites were real danger, so the Quran ordered Muslims not to ally with them till they immigrate to the state. If they refused to immigrate then they should be treated as enemies in the battle field. However, if they did not immigrate but they did not attack the state either, the Muslims were not allowed to fight them. (4: 88 to 91). God described most of those Arabic Bedouins as the (worst in disbelief and hypocrisy and more likely to be in ignorance of the Gods Legislation.) (9: 97).

Most of them controlled the routs north and south the new Islamic state, and had a good relationship with the Arabic Christian tribes and the Jewish tribes in the Arabic Peninsula. Those Christian and Jewish tribes united together against the new Islamic state which was alone in front of those allies. Some people inside the Islamic state including the hypocrite had a good relationship with those allies in spite of their enmity and fight. So, God ordered them not to take them allies as long they fighting their state, otherwise they will be in their side and part of them.( 5 : 51 to 58 ).

 

The Islamic state had to defend itself against the attacks of those Christian and Jewish tribes. God ordered the Islamic state to fight them as they violated Gods commandment until they pay expiation as a punishment for their aggression. (8:29). It means not to occupy their land, nor to force them to convert to Islam, but o­nly to pay back for their aggression as our modern international legislation deals with any country attacks other country and is finally defeated.

Those rules of alliance protected the new peaceful Islamic state in front of all it enemies who surrounded it.

 

Generally, God makes it clear rules in dealing with the non- Muslims who are out of the Islamic state:

[1] Muslims should deal kindly and justly with those who do not fight them, and did not drive them out of their home.

[2] Muslims are not allowed to be allies to those who attack them and fight them because of their religion, and also expelled them from their home, or helped the unbelievers in driving them out from their homes. (60:8 & 9).

Rules in battle field:

Not o­nly does the Quran establish a clear relationship between the terms Islam and peace and the legislation of war , but the Quran also presents other legislations in order to confirm the main value of peace and to leave no ground for ambiguity or intended misuse.

1- We find a clear-cut example in sura 4 hence which talks about the prohibition of killing a peaceful and a safe believer; the verse says:(Its not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake.) (4: 92) it means that it is impossible or unjustifiable, that a true believer would intentionally kill another. The verse goes in talking about the compensation due such a case and the rules related to it. Then verse 4: 93 talks about the divine punishment awaiting the killer of a peaceful man or a believer for that matter doesnt make deference at the point. The verse says :( And whoever kills a believer intentionally, his recompense is Hell, to abide therein forever, and the wrath and the curse of God are upon him and a dreadful punishment is prepared for him.) Thus he who kills a peaceful believer faces eternity in Hell, wrath and curse and great suffering. These are stated in the Quran as separate punishments each. Yet it seems that the person who commits such a dreadful crime deserves all of these punishments added together.

The sura 4 continues as verse 94 declares the right of life to any peaceful o­ne regardless of his inner belief, it says: Oh you who believed! When you go to fight in the cause of God, investigate carefully and say not to anyone who greets you: You are not a believer.). Thus in time of war, the believers must carefully investigate to make sure that they arent committing the crime of killing a peaceful man, who by misfortune happens to be in the battle field. God gives him and even any o­ne in the other side of the enemy a constant right to be saved simply by pronouncing the words (peace be upon you) or the Islamic greeting. If he says so, it then becomes unlawful to kill him. He even becomes a peaceful believer regardless of his inner belief and his strange presence in the battle field. If he is killed, the killer will deserve the total punishment mentioned in the verse 93. Therefore any peaceful o­ne is Muslim and believer even during war time and field, and if he gets killed then his killer deserves the abode in Hell, the great suffering, and Gods curse and wrath.

 

2- In that time, it was a bad habit to kill the captives, enslave them or free them for money or ransom. God blamed the prophet Mohammed when he set free all the captives of Badr Battle for money, as the main mission of the prophet not to seek the vanity of this life but to give a good example to people. God ordered the prophet Mohammed to tell them that He would forgive them if they had any good in their heart :( O Prophet say to the captives that are in your hands If God knows any goodin your hearts, He will give you something better than what has been taken from you and He will forgive you, and God is Oft- Forgiving, Most Merciful.) (8: 70)

God ordered the prophet Mohammed and Muslims o­nly two choice to deal with the captives; to set them free or as exchange of prisoners of war. (37:4). In all cases, the prisoner of war after releasing him becomes (Ibn Al Sabeel) ora guest as long he is in the Muslim State, should be given charity and alms and shelter until he returns home.(76:8) (2: 177 &215) ( 4: 36)( 8: 41)( 9: 60)( 17: 26)( 24: 22)(30: 38)( 59: 7).

These Quranic laws about the captives were ignored by Muslims during their history, as it was a bad habit in the middle Ages to kill the captives as the first option. This used to happen during the fight between Muslim Empire and the Roman Empire and other nations, besides the domestic wars inside the Muslims civil wars.

Moreover, killing the captives or enslaving them was accompanied by enslaving women and children. It was the dark Middle Aged culture which made the Muslim traditions and history full of these aspects in manifest defiance to the real Islamic values.

3- In a case of a worrier fighting Muslims who decided to cease fighting, he o­nly has to seek an asylum. When he does so his life is in safe and secured, he should be allowed to listen to the Quran to choose to believe in it or not, and also to have no excuse before God in Judgment Day. The Muslims are ordered to escort him to a safe place, or a home, in security and peace. That is precisely what the verses says: (If o­ne amongst the unbelievers seeks protection from you, grant it to him, so that he may hear the word of God, and then escort him to where he can be secured, that is because they are without knowledge ( 9 : 6).

The truth is that most Muslims are also without knowledge.

The proof is that Islam is a religion of peace. Peace is in its origin and in its legislation but because of the behavior of the old Muslims and the fanatic Muslims in our time, Islam has become accused of fanaticism, fascism and terrorism. This leads us to identify the meanings of Infidel, unbeliever. Is he any o­ne who is non Muslim as most of Muslims believe?

 

Two meanings for the infidel and unbeliever

Islam means to submit you to the o­ne God in dealing with Him- and to be peaceful in dealing with people. God alone is the o­nly o­ne who has the power to judge our belief. The society in this world has the right to judge the individuals regarding the relationship among them. So, any peaceful o­ne is Muslim regardless of his belief, and any honest safe faithful o­ne is believer regardless of his inner faith. o­n the other hand, any o­ne who transgresses the limits or wrongs the others, or attacks them or terrifies them is unbeliever or infidel regardless of any slogan he claims.

The Quranic language has many descriptions for the infidels and disbelievers to explain the main aspects of those people in any time regardless of any motto they claim.Its up to the o­ne God alone to judge their inner belief, but its up to us to recognize them according to their transgression.


Al Zolm

Al Zolm is the first description of the infidel or the disbeliever. Its an Arabic term means to do wrong, to commit outrage, to tyrannize, to be unfair , unjust, to oppress, to attack the innocent o­nes. This term is repeated in the Quran about 300 times as its the main aspect of the disbelief and infidelity. For example: (2:254) (31:13) and: (2: 165) (4: 75 & 168) (6: 45) (10:13 &52) (11: 37& 67& &94& 102 & 116) (14: 44 & 45) (21:13) (29: 49)

 

The unbeliever chooses to wrong the o­nly God by adding partners to Him, but God is the o­nly o­ne who will judge him concerning the realm of faith and religion. If this unbeliever lives peacefully, he is a believer according to our limits in this life as we are concern o­nly about living in peace and safe and justice in terms of dealing with each other.

 

Every o­ne believes that his own faith is the real truth, so its against the pure justice to judge each other in faith and belief. Its a pure justice to leave this to the God Himself to judge us as we all have different faiths concerning Him. So He is the o­nly o­ne who will tell us the real truth o­n the Day of Truth (2:113) (3:55) (10:93) (16:124) (5:48) (39:3 & 7 &46). Our concern should be o­nly to live peacefully and justly and not to allow any o­ne to violate this peace by the name of God while he is wronging the God and disobeying His commandments. Its the most outrageous deed to disobey the o­ne God and claim himself man of God killing the people by His name.

 

This is Quranic Islamic culture contradicted its early middle ages.

But its more contradiction was to its Arabic Peninsulas culture where the Arabic tribes used to live in continuous blood sheds, glorifying raiding each other as a sign of honor and courage. Those Arabic tribal incursions mean killing the other tribes men and enslaving their women and children and giving the other tribe the right to retaliate. This bloody culture was faced by Islam and its peaceful face. The new Quranic language makes transgression, wrong, attack and assaults the attitude of the disbelief in the o­ne God.

 

As the Quran talks about [Al Zolm] in about two hundred times, making it a sign of infidelity and disbelief, we find in the Quranic context another Arabic Quranic word ( transgression) to give the same meaning and used also in the same context regarding the unbelievers and infidels. God Says twice in the Quran :( and transgress not. Verily God loves not the transgressors.) .This is mentioned in sura (2: 190) to refer in the rules of fighting, and mentioned also in the sura (5: 87) to confirm the absolute right of God alone in revealing the Divine legislation. This was a serious warning to the believers not to prohibit the good things that God has permitted.

 

God mentioned two kinds of aggressions, o­ne of them made by infidels against the peaceful people. God says about them: (Its they who are the transgressors.) (9:10) [Read also: (50: 25) (68: 12) (83: 12). The other kind they made against God, His revelation and His legislation. [See: (4:154) (7:163) (2:229) (4: 14) (65:1) (5: 94& 87) (23: 7).]. Its up to God alone to judge those who violate His image, His revelation and legislation. But its the human society responsibility to face those who violate the human rights, especially the right of life.

 

To face this (zolm) and oppression God ordered Muslims to be patient. Patience or (Al Sabr) is a Quranic term mentioned in the Quran about o­ne hundred times as great Islamic value means forgiveness, tolerance, forbearance, perseverance and endurance.

Muslim has to uphold (Al Sabr) all his life seeking to please his Almighty Lord, in every stance of his life. He has to be (saber) in forgiving those who insult him, and to be (saber) also if he has to fight to defend his life or his freedom of belief. Its a positive Islamic value to protect peace and to confirm tolerance and forgiveness in the same time. It was in middle between the total passiveness of the peaceful early Muslims, and the other people who were active in aggression and transgression.

 

The terrorist is the worst criminal.

Some unbelievers have the two kinds of transgression; its those who kill the innocent people in the name of God. The Muslim terrorists of our time are the clear example of this case. Its imperative to face them from inside Islam to prove the contradiction between them and the real Islam and its real Jurisprudence. The simple criminal kills o­ne person or few people without any religious justification, but the other criminal kills thousands of the innocent people believing its his religious duty to kill those who have different faith or different religion. In this case, he does not kill people, but he also kills the real values of the Divine religion. In this case, the killer is not the o­nly criminal, but also those scholars and those religious authorities who preach such bloody culture as religious teachings should be obeyed.

 

The basic rules of terrorist religious culture:

1- The Historic roots.

 

Those terrorists and their religious leaders and scholars claim to themselves in this life the rank of the Almighty God; they monopolize the Divine right of God to judge and punish the humans. They set up the Day of Judgment in this world before the Day of resurrection and judge the other people accusing them to be enemies of God should be killed as a Jihad or crusader. This was acceptable in Middle Ages culture in Muslim and Christian sides, but it becomes outrageous violation to human rights and the core of the Divine Religion of God.

 

The very important question is: If Islam is the religion of peace, why do we find this Muslim culture of violence and terrorism?

 

The key word is Quraysh, the mighty Arabic tribe of the prophet Mohammed, who persecuted him and his peaceful helpless followers to protect their political and economical interest in the Arab Peninsula, then they finally converted to Islam to keep their political and economical interest and to develop it by the name of the new religion and by using its followers as well.

 

Quraysh was the master of the known world trade in that time. They carried the Indian goods from Yemen to Syria and the Roman Empire. Quraysh has its allies among the Arabic tribes which belonged to Yemen in Yemen and in Syria as well. Those Yemeni tribes controlled the routs inside Syria and Yemen while the other tribes of Najd- which belonged to the same lineage of Quraysh- controlled the other routs between Mecca and Yemen. Quraysh controlled the Christian Yemen tribes by the mutual economical interests and controlled the other wild tribes of Najd by keeping their idols in the sacred Mosque in Mecca and by controlling the Arabic religious pilgrimage. Quraysh had inherited that pilgrimage from the religion of the prophet Abraham; the father of Quraysh and all the northern Arabic tribes.

 

The real religion of Abraham was changed by Quraysh according to its interests. The Holy sacred Mosque in Mecca was built by Abraham and his son; Ishmael. When Arabs converted to worshipping idols, Quraysh put their idols in the sacred Mosque to control the idol worshippers.

 

Mohammed was sent to revive the religion of Abraham and to keep it away from human business, so it became a real danger to Quraysh and its religious trade. In its war against the prophet Mohammed and his peaceful followers Quraysh used its allies from the northern Arab tribes of Najd and the Christian Yemeni tribes, but these wars made a lot of debate about the Quran and its intellectual debate concerning the true meaning of the idols and the sacred tombs. For that reason and other reasons, Islam had new followers who made Quraysh changed its mind and decided to convert to Islam to keep and develop its political and economical benefits.

 

God confirms in the Quran that Quraysh and all the Arabs in that time used to worship the o­nly God, but in the same time they idolized the saints in sacred and tombs and image of sacred stones just to bring them near to God. (39:3) (7:194 &195) (16: 20& 21) (23: 84& 92). Quraysh used to create and set up these stones in the sacred mosque realizing the nonsense of worshipping these human made idols. But they defend them against the guidance of Islam and disbelieved in the Quran just to keep their benefits. (28: 57)(56: 81& 82) So, it was easy to Quraysh to convert to Islam after about twenty years of ardent enmity.

 

Soon after Mohammeds death the elders of Quraysh-who were the ardent enemies of Islam- restored their influence in the Islamic state and by the name of Islam they suppressed the Arabic movements of apostasy and reached to a compromise with them to mobilize towards the rich lands around the Arab Peninsula to invade them in the name of Islam and Jihad. It was a practical change in the Islamic Jurisprudence; to fight in the cause of wealth and the vanity of this life instead of fight in the cause of God. It was also a practical change in the Arabic culture, to fight the non Arabs as Islamic Jihad instead of killing each others inside the poor Arabian Peninsula.

 

However, the Arab tribes had then a religious justification from Quraysh to invade and occupy the other peoples lands and enslave them and stole their wealth in the name of Islam. To give this wars an Islamic face, the Arabic leaders used to invade the other peoples lands, then they offered three options before attacking the enemy: To be Muslim like them, to pay tribute, or war. The real option was o­nly o­ne; the war. By this way Quraysh established its mighty Arabic Empire under the name of Islam and against its real values and jurisprudence.

 

As it was war in the cause of wealth- not in the cause of God- the wealth was the real reason of political disputes between Quraysh and the north wild tribes; who revolted before in the apostasy wars then returned to Islam and were active in invading the two super powers and occupying Syria, Iraq , Iran and Egypt. These political disputes became great civil wars among Arab Muslim tribes, dividing Quryash and Arabs into many political parties, and giving the leadership to the Omawy family to establish their dynasty although they were the former ardent enemies of the prophet Mohammed and early Muslims. It happened five decades after Mohammeds death.

 

The Omawy Empire fought its Arab Muslims inside the Empire while it continued its invasions in to India and central Asia in east and in North Africa, Mediterranean Sea and Spain in west. After about seventy years of civil wars and outer wars against the in Minor Asia, Africa, Europe and Central Asia, The Mighty Omawy Empire collapsed under a great pressure from another Qurayshy movements led secretly by the grand children of Al Abbas, the old uncle of the prophet Mohammed. The Abbasy Empire lasted in power for five centuries, fighting outside its borders and inside it as usual until the Mogul destroyed it.

 

2- Muslim Tradition is the source of fanatic discourse.

 

During this long time of wars, inside and outside the Arabic Empire, Muslims in the Omawy and Abbasy dynasties had many different cultures and different political parties which produced many new religious sects and cults. Each o­ne of them tried to establish its arguments by choosing certain verses from the Holy Quran, and twisting their meanings to serve its purpose. In the same time they invented (Hadeeth) or sayings attributed to the prophet Mohammed, some centuries after his death to confirm his thoughts.

 

Muslims in our time inherit all this tradition and most of them consider this human tradition part of Islam, in spite of the total contradiction between the Quran and most of this tradition which was response to the Middle Ages culture, not to Islam as its mentioned in the Quran and applied by the prophet Mohammed.

 

This Sunni tradition is kept and defended by Al Azhar in Egypt and the Saudi State and its Wahabi agencies. Any Muslim scholar dares to discuss this tradition is destined to persecution and accused to be the enemy of Islam and the prophet Mohammed. Muslim communities in the U.S and in the West are followers of these seminaries in Middle East. Its useless to reform these Muslim communities without reforming the roots in Egypt and Saudi State.

 

The leaders of the fanatic Muslims in the West and in Middle East use the same fanatic discourse and the same tactic. In talking with West they preach Islam as religion of peace using some Quranic verses, but inside their mosques and centers they accuse the west to be the ardent enemy of Islam and accusing all the Christians and Jews and all non Muslims to be infidels. Even those who usually curse Usama Ben Laden, they could not criticize his religious discourse which he usually releases in his tapes because its their own discourse, but the o­nly difference is in the tactic. Usama Bin Laden is frank and direct while the others are hypocrites and conceal what Usama releases.

 

All those Muslim terrorists including Usama believe in this tradition as the basic part of Islam revealed to the prophet Mohammed directly from God. This is what they were taught in schools and mosques. To the most of ordinary religious Muslims, those terrorist are faithful Muslims while the big (Sheikhs and Imams) are just hypocrites who serve the corrupted rulers, and those corrupted rulers are servants of America, and America and West are the enemy of Islam.

17/06/10

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