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Chapter 12. War is Death/Murder; Peace is Life. Military Science: How Better to Kill? Peace Science: How Better to Live?

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War is Death/Murder; Peace is Life.

Military Science: How Better to Kill?

Peace Science: How Better to Live?


1.What are War and its Science? Leo Semashko

2. The Continuity of Wars in World History. Charles Mercieca

3. Peace as a Break between Wars and Preparation for New Wars in Industrial Civilization.

Charles Mercieca

4.Culture of War and Militaristic Culture of Peace. Charles Mercieca

5. War Crimes against Humanity in the 20th and 21st Centuries. The Facts of Genocide.

Ernesto Kahan

6. The Birth, Meaning and Death of Military Science. Leo Semashko


We shall require a substantially new manner of

thinking if mankind is to survive.

Albert Einstein [1]


Traditional way of thinking is principally military and violent,

threatening to destruct of mankind and nature.

A fundamentally new way of thinking is thought of

SPHERONS, spheres, their harmony and similar GPS categories.

This science is revolution of social thinking and knowledge.

It refuses to answer the question "how better to kill?"

It o­nly responds to the question "how better to live and survive"

in the global world without war? Therefore, if humanity

wants to survive, it should require the recognition, development

and use GPS as a substantially new manner of thinking.



Global Peace Science (GPS) is endless in social

space and time the cognitive and practical deploying

simple scientific formula of global peace: "Global peace comes

from harmony of SPHERONS through science, education, religion and art".



GPS is the main and necessary cognitive weapon against war,

Providing absolute nonviolent victory of peace over war.



1. What are War and its Science? Leo Semashko

What are global peace and its science? At this question answered the preceding 11 chapters, a conclusion which is o­ne: (global) peace is a necessary and eternal condition of human society at all stages and levels, the source of which is equally necessary and eternal, objective SPHERONS (harmonious classes of population employed in four spheres of social production) providing continuous social harmony as social peace creating it as its integral epiphenomenon. In short: peace is a universal state of SPHERONS, universal and harmonious spheral classes ensuring social life and war is temporary state of death through mutual murder of the particular groups – PARTONS (see chapter 1). Peace is life, fullness and multidimensionality of life. It is a positive and creative energy. The science of global peace is a theoretical synthesis of knowledge of SPHERONS’ peace confirmed facts and revealing structure, attributes, laws, and other properties, connections and relationships of SPHERONS as peace actors. At the level of general conceptual understanding of peace with it all is clear, though the recess in it creates a lot of questions, to some of which GPS is unable to answer now but will answer in the future, at the appropriate level of development.

Within the framework of a broad scientific picture of peace presented in the preceding chapters, we often concerned a variety of issues of war and responded to many of them. This chapter is intended to systematize the answers to o­ne simple question: "What are war and its science?" Above we have given a lot of different definitions of war from different perspectives and points of view. Usually war is defined as a conflict between states or political groups by the armed forces (Wikipedia). The GPS defines war as the sharp disharmony of private groups, PARTONS, where disharmony is the ultimate cause of war, in contrast to peace, the ultimate cause of which is harmony of SPHERONS (see chap. 1). But what is war from a philosophical point of view, i.e. in its most universal and permanent nature? It is mutual killing people, or, more simply, in o­ne word - it is DEATH. What is death/murder? - This is the most primitive animal action: loss of life of any living creature, which is done universally, any existing in nature thing, or not, as they say, "by bare hands." The war as murder and death is part, o­ne-dimensional, negative, destructive and anti-creative energy. If the essence of war is death/murder, the essence of military science is how to kill better, how to destroy better, i.e. faster, more accurate, more, o­n land, in water and in the air, in different situations, with less risk, etc.

We will compare the essence, cause and quality of war and peace in the updated (Chapter 1) and generalized tetramodel built o­n the following chain of concepts: 1.Disharmony of PARTONS as source of war - 2.War = murder/death, negative o­ne-dimensional energy - 3.Harmony of SPHERONS as source of peace - 4. PEACE = life, creative energy, integrity, multidimensionality.

Model-22. Comparison of War and Peace
Model-22. Comparison of War and Peace

In human history, it so happened that their main advantage - the mind, the person directed first not to achieve and develop the most advanced and simultaneously the most complex state of his life - not to peace, but to progress of the most primitive animal act - murder/death. This historic situation is due to underdeveloped and fragmented humanity, which have exhausted themselves in an era of globalization and decline of the industrial civilization. Let's try to briefly reveal the main features of the military era of humanity and its military science, which arose more than 200 years ago and it is ahead of the peace science (GPS) more than two centuries. This time lag determined the degradation of the whole complex of social cognition; it has become a major obstacle of its development and made it a second-class and marginalized after the military-technical knowledge. It is a key information defect of the industrial civilization, condemning it to stagnation and extinction.

Dr. Leo Semashko. Editor in Chief, Global Peace Science (GPS)


2. The Continuity of Wars in World History. Charles Mercieca


Sovereign states have been mankind’s paramount objects of worship during the last 5,000 years; and these are goddesses which have demanded and received hecatombs of human sacrifices. Sovereign states go to war with each other, and in war they each require the choicest of their young male subjects to murder the subjects of the “enemy” state at the risk of themselves being murdered by their intended victims. Till within living memory, all human beings except a few small minorities... have looked upon killing and being killed in war as being not o­nly legitimate but meritorious and glorious.” A.J. Toynbee [2]

Over the past 6,000 years of recorded history we often read about wars and their devastating consequences. In the Bible, which is viewed by the world at large as a holy and sacred book, we read about many wars that took place from time to time almost without ending. We need to raise quite a few questions since, as the scholastic philosophers tell us: Nihil ex nihilo fit – Nothing comes out of nothing. Another well-known statement runs as follows: Quidquid contigens est causam habet – Whatever exists must have a cause.

Belligerent Governmental Policies. When we analyze carefully the sources of each war we generally discover that it was waged by those in the government. The vast majority of people across every continent always yearned to live at peace o­n a permanent basis. When Jesus came to this world some 2,000 years ago he made it a point to improve as many negative biblical expressions as possible. He was driven by the fact that he was a deeply peaceful person. Besides, he knew countless thousands of innocent people o­n a global scale that have and still suffer brutally unnecessarily.

Jesus did not hesitate to describe to us the true nature of God, which is purely based o­n love and mercy. In fact, he reminded the people of his time saying: The God I know is not the God you know. Your God functions o­n the eye-for-an-eye and a tooth-for-a-tooth. The God I know functions o­n love and mercy. When someone strikes you o­n the cheek you do not strike back but rather you should turn the other cheek. This means it is far better for us to practice humility and respect than resorting to retaliation and revenge.

We also remember what Jesus said to Peter when he drew out the sword to defend his Master. He told him clearly: Put the sword away for he who kills by the sword will die by the sword. Periodically, Jesus exhorted his disciples saying: Do to others what you would like others to do to you. This means if we do not want to be hurt and killed let us not take the initiative to hurt others, far less to terminate their lives. If we continue to ignore these peaceful instructions of Jesus, we are likely to continue waging wars till the end of time.

We are all familiar with the expression history repeats itself. Since over the centuries we have experienced both good and evil that means we may look forward to experience the repetition of these two elements for sure. Our job in life should be to create situations, nationally and globally, that are good and beneficial. This way we may create people that are trained to do constructive things as to be prepared to pass such vital elements to others. If people were to be trained from early childhood to provide to others love and compassion, then the probability of future wars may start becoming highly remote.

War as an Enemy of True Peace. The Romans had a saying which went as follows: Si vis pacem, para pacem and si vis bellum para bellum –- If you want peace prepare for peace and if you want war prepare for war. US President Richard Nixon did not seem to believe in this important dictum. So he turned it around and said: Si vis pacem para bellum – If you want peace prepare for war. This was essentially the revealed US foreign policy since World War II was over in 1945. It explains why the USA since then was very heavily involved in more than 30 wars.

Three of these latest wars were Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq. These last two wars alone brought the American nation some $2 trillion dollars debt, which has become a phenomenal financial burden to the American people. As a result, the people’s sources of indispensable revenue just to survive became seriously threatened. It is very sad to consider that while the bulk of the three hundred million Americans were against the involvement of such wars, the few hundreds in the government proceeded to wage such immoral and illegal wars.

Going back to the earliest days of recorded history, we always witnessed that a leading power was viewed to be a nation with a devastating military. In practice, a leading power happens to be a nation that has been blessed with healthy people who have the opportunity to develop their God-given talents to the maximum. In view of this, we need to start doing something that is highly essential. We must make it a point that the o­nly nations that we may respect and trust are among those who do not rely o­n any military power.

As a matter of fact, every nation in the world should not allow having in its territory the presence of any foreign military bases by all means. Such bases always existed not to create peace but, o­n the contrary, to plan and promote as many devastating wars as possible. That would result in the destruction of many buildings as to make tens of thousands of people homeless. Besides, that would bring about the eventual killing and maiming of tens of thousands of innocent people, including women, children, the elderly and the sick.

The question that needs to be seriously raised here is this: Why is it that while the seven billion people in the world at large want to live at peace, a mere handful of people in their government continue to set up scenarios as to justify the promotion of never-ending wars? There may be many reasons that could be outlined. However, the dominant o­ne lies in the fact that the weapons industry and the military industrial complex in the world have emerged to become a lucrative business. Their o­nly o­ne goal is to make money without limit, even at the cost of the lives of countless millions of innocent people.

Planning for a Peaceful Future. We are all familiar with the proverb: When there is a will there is a way. Responsible individuals should get periodically together to figure out steps that would bring the weapons industry and the military industrial complex under control. The Center for Defense Information in Washington, D.C., which was formed by retired US military officials, made a lot of videos that bring the causes of war, as presented here, into full perspective. o­ne of these videos was meant to provide us with steps that may bring the major causes of war under control.

Among other things stated, it was advocated that all those working for both the weapons industry and the military industrial complex should quit their job without further delay. Instead, they should seek for jobs that are fully beneficial for all human beings. The weapons industry and the military industrial complex should not panic when faced with this constructive philosophy that they may end up going out of business. They can keep fully well their business but simply change their product.

Instead of making weapons of destructions, they could make computers and many educational items that are viewed to be fully useful. Instead of making tanks for soldiers they could make tractors for farmers and the list goes o­n and o­n. Moreover, in nations where people have the opportunity to elect their own government officials, they should make sure in the next elections they put out of office determinedly all those who supported the elements of war without any hesitation. Good results may not be achieved overnight.

Even if the prospect and real achievement of a permanent peace may take several decades or even a couple of centuries, our task is to take the first steps that may serve as our foundation or legacy for a future permanent peace. By way of encouragement, let us keep in mind that we cannot teach old dogs new tricks. The best way to deal with old war-minded government officials is to find a good and practical way to have them removed from office. We need to change the sources that always led to wars with sources that will always lead to peace.

Charles Mercieca, Ph.D., President, International Association of Educators for World Peace; Professor Emeritus, Alabama A&M University; GHA Vice-President. Address: Huntsville, Alabama, USA. Web: http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=129; E-mail: mercieca@knology.net


3. Peace as a Break between Wars and Preparation for New Wars in Industrial Civilization. Charles Mercieca

Over the past recorded history of 6,000 years we notice that many nations tended to solve their differences through the waging of o­ne war after another. Needless to say, in-between wars we also observe a period of peace. As far as the people were concerned they enjoyed such periods and often hoped they would continue forever. However, as far as government officials were concerned that always proved to be a different story. As the Italians say, tra il dire e il fare c’e’ in mezzo il mare – between saying and doing there is an ocean, that is, an abyss.

Eventual Purpose of Wars. Of course, there should be a reason why wars continue to take place, especially when the population as a whole never wants to experience the tragedies of such events by all means. Scholastic philosophers tell us, quidquid contingens est causam habet -- whatever exists there must be a cause, that is, a source. And another famous dictum runs as follows, ex nihilo nihilo fit, -- nothing happens out of nothing.

Hence, wars do not pop up from the midst of nowhere. There must be a plan of some sort that would make it easier to instigate and promote wars. What is curious in our study of the nature of wars lies here. Such devices were never used to promote peace and harmony, love and compassion. o­n the contrary, wars often tended to stem out of jealousy and hatred and they always inflicted pain revealed mostly in the destruction of the infrastructure of cities.

Moreover, such pain is also seen in the killing and maiming of tens of thousands of innocent people, in particular women, children, the elderly and the sick. In every era of history, every government, regardless of its nature, always claimed the responsibility to look after the welfare of the people, which is revealed in providing them with a good health care system, adequate housing facilities and good education. But as long as government officials in general continue to be addicted with wars, such goals cannot be easily reached.

If we were to study the military powers that emerged in this world over the last two to three hundred years alone, we will soon find out something which is fully in common. The governments that attached priority in piling up weapons and in promoting more and more wars, ended up neglecting their people who suffered immensely as a result. Just a study of the Portuguese, Spanish, British and American empires makes us realize that the more they concentrated o­n the invasion of other countries and the promotion of wars, the more their respective native population suffered all kinds of deprivation.

Sources of Destruction. Nowadays, we all know that the manufacture of weapons and the military industrial complex have emerged into becoming a very lucrative business. To turn an insult into injury, the United States’ big corporations take the initiative to finance the elections of various politicians. They want to make sure that after election such politicians would do anything to boost their products, regardless of how lethal and detrimental they may prove to be to society. In the USA all the major news media are now being controlled by big corporations.

The corruption that emerged in the US government as a result has become virtually out of control. It explains why millions of people do not have enough food to eat, are deprived of adequate home facilities, and do not have easy access to vital medical needs. From a careful study of history we learn that a nation could be termed to be strong when its people are healthy and highly educated, in addition to having adequate home facilities. When this takes place then such a nation is fully self-sufficient since all the vital needs are fully there.

However, since the US government as a whole views the strength of the nation merely in military capabilities, it explains why such a nation puts top priority o­n the continued manufacture of weapons and military equipment. It explains why the United States, in spite of the fact that it was advised otherwise, chose to become involved in more than 30 wars following World War II. The most recent o­nes, all of which proved to be a disaster may be enlisted as Vietnam, Afghanistan and Iraq.

In each of such wars, thousands of young Americans lost their lives or became maimed for life, not to mention those that committed suicide. All these tragedies occurred literally needlessly. Besides, the United States was responsible for the destruction of the infrastructure of many cities which included not o­nly the destruction of people’s homes but also the annihilation of many schools, churches and other vital sources. Besides, we may add the millions that became refugees and who led very miserable lives afterwards.

Every nation that views its strength in military terms and not in people’s health and education always ends up punishing itself severely. The US economy today is in a state of collapse because of its continued wars. The Iraqi war alone cost the USA $2 trillion dollars in debt, money that could have been used to give Americans adequate home facilities, good health care, and excellent education. A substantial number of government officials, mostly republicans, had the guts to propose the solution of the debt problem by cutting money from the vital needs of the American people, like health care, education and social security.

Deception at Work. Ironically, a number of these same government officials when they talk o­n radio or television, they sound like they are concerned with the welfare of the American people in general. But, as the Italians say, parole si, fatti no – words year, facts no. This means their apparent concern for the welfare of the American people as a whole is merely bla, bla, bla. The US government officials must follow the example of President Truman when he set the US President’s office for two terms of four years each.

The US Senators’ term must also be set for two terms of five years each, while the US Congressmen’s terms should also be limited for five terms of two years each. We have many young brilliant people in the USA but their chances of serving the nation in a governmental office is not that easy as long as the big corporations continued to finance their governmental buddies to remain in office for ever. Moreover, all news media must give a substantial percentage of time to cover all those running for office free-of-charge.

As the preamble of UNESCO states: Since wars begin in the minds of men it is in the minds of men that the defenses of peace must be constructed. As we may all know, this acronym stands for United Nations, Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. The eventual implementation of this preamble is of paramount importance. It enables us to understand the wisdom of having periodical changes of individuals in the government. When individuals serve a long time in a governmental position, their mind-set about anything becomes so deeply trenched that it may need a miracle like that of raising Lazarus from the dead to make them see things better and into a truer perspective. In view of what has been stated, we still have hope of not having to spend another 6,000 years of recorded history going through o­ne war after another. The human nature is subject to corruption at o­ne time or another. Our job is to take the first steps toward providing a better future for posterity.

My letter to the USA Congress. “Dear Friends in the United States Congress. In the past 6,000 years, a nation’s economy collapsed by military expenses. The USA is no exception.

US foreign military bases must be cut by 50% and people may use this money for their dire needs. The Department of Defense needs to make drastic cuts in military items and in the number of active troops. The US global military has created animosity that has made the nation suspicious. Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and President Obama must reduce the US military globally. Ron Paul said as President he would cut the military budget by closing many US foreign military bases. Thank you. Dr. Charles Mercieca, Ret. Professor of Philosophy and History, Alabama A&M University. 15/03/14”.


4.Culture of War and Militaristic Culture of Peace. Charles Mercieca

Every era of history revealed conflicts between the culture of war and that of peace. Each time the culture of war proved disastrous while that of peace was beneficial.Unfortunately, the culture of war has proved always to be dominant in the world at large. This is revealed in the fact that there are very few nations which had the courage to abolish the military. Such nations have managed to live in peace for very long periods in spite of the turmoil that might have surrounded their boarders. o­ne clear example is a little Costa Rica (about 5 million), which had a long history of civil wars where some 80% of the population were homeless and lived in poverty. Many years ago – in 1948 the leader of this nation abolished the military for good that was approved in the Constitution of this country., where about 80% of the population were homeless and living in poverty, After refusal from the army Costa Rica became o­ne of the most prosperous country in the world and was ranked the first in the world in 2012 with the index of happiness and almost all indicators of living standard.

The United States did not like this move and soon tried to persuade the government of Costa Rica of the imminent danger it faced since the surrounding countries were all equipped with strong military forces. Costa Rica’s military general who abolished the military forces from his nation said calmly and firmly to the USA: “We firmly believe that if we prove to be not a threat to any of the surrounding nations, not o­ne of them will dream to attack us.” And he proved to be right. For the several decades that followed Costa Rica remains peaceful.

When the government of Costa Rica was asked: Where did you get the money to provide so many people with adequate home facilities and to give them all free education not o­nly at the elementary and secondary school level but also at the college and university level as well? The answer was quick and simple: You see, when we had the military we spent millions of dollars o­n weapons and the promotion of struggles and wars; now that the military is gone all of that money is being used constructively for the welfare of the people. That would include free education and free health care for everyone.

The reason often quoted by government officials for their justification of war is expressed by the words: national defense and security, which is absolutely not true. A nation is viewed to be strong and healthy when its people are fully educated to the maximum of their abilities, in addition to being in good health. Since wars have become to be highly expensive, all money put in them is taken away from the vital needs of the population. An example of this is the USA which engaged itself in more than 30 wars since World War II was over in 1945, which ensured huge profits of military corporations. US Empire participated or initiated almost all the wars and aggression since 1945, but have not been seen in any of the global peace initiative. This is world record of militarism, war and aggression! Brian Wilson wrote about it as "The US Fear of Peace” [3]. We do not know a single article or book devoted to the American peacefulness because it does not exist in nature and human history: the o­nly full militarism. This is the essence of military culture and militaristic culture of peace, which make up two sides of a military nature.

It looks like that the culture of war has gone so deeply into the minds of many government officials that when the military speaks of the culture of peace, it sounds more to be some sort of a joke within the context. By its very nature, the military in general has always existed to instigate and promote wars almost without ending. As observed in the early part of this presentation, the constant state of war in Costa Rica ended o­nly after the military was abolished. If the set-up of a military unit is needed, it should be merely for national emergences.

A military unit that exists to disseminate wars should be abolished because its presence makes it very difficult for the world to have eventually a genuine peace among people o­n both the national and global scale. The Master Teacher of Nazareth was very clear o­n this topic. He exhorted us all to do to others what we would like others do to us. We do not want others to hurt us and kill us. Likewise we should never take the initiative to solve conflicts of any kind through struggles and wars but o­nly through diplomacy and healthy dialogues.

But this requires a new peace culture with o­ne spiritual platform - Global Peace Science (GPS), which reveals the universal source of world peace - general harmonious social structure of every nation in its natural harmonious classes of the population, in SPHERONS, from harmony of which grows peace in all countries, cities and settlements o­n the planet Earth. It is this knowledge is necessary for new generations in all schools, that each recognized themselves permanent atom of SPHERONS, i.e. a permanent actor of global peace. This is the life mission of the divine destiny of every conscious person. o­nly this knowledge and consciousness will ensure the conflict resolution of any kind not through the struggle and war, but o­nly through dialogue, mutual understanding and other non-violent means. Scientific knowledge of GPS creates a single basis for the long-term (on 5-6 decades) program of simultaneous disarmament of all countries by 2% each year (see chap. 8). This is true, harmonious culture of peace that comes from God, an attempt to express of which was made our GPS in this book.

Dr. Charles Mercieca, Ret. Professor, Alabama A&M University, USA


5. War Crimes against Humanity in the 20th and 21st Centuries. The Facts of Genocide. Ernesto Kahan

Masao Tomonaga, the International director of IPPNW (International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War) and Professor in Nagasaki University, wrote in the foreword of the book entitled “Genocide” [4] "What is humankind? Why do human beings make mistakes again and again?What is the nature of humankind?Is it naturally dark?There are those who believe in power politics, those who try to control the world with “unusable nuclear weapons” which may lead to the destruction of humankind.How can we bring about the spirit of coexistence to human beings o­n earth, when we are fighting for such natural resources such as oil (for example), when we want to monopolize new technology, when we want to make more money and fulfill every kind of desire?[…] What is human intellect?I want to define it is the wisdom to guarantee to our descendants, to long live in peace and in good health.This will o­nly be brought about by facing up to the Holocaust history truthfully." The answers to the first question gives in a whole this book GPS and the short answer to the Holocaust question or the genocide to try to give our small article.

In the same book, Kahan E. and Taki Y, the authors, introduced the term genocide defined by the Convention o­n the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, article 2 adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1948. In the present Convention, “genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group, as such : Killing members of the group; Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group; Deliberately inflicting o­n the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part; Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group; Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group” [5].

As it is clear genocides are o­nly part of the crimes against humanity, in a personal communication, Rene Wadlow, President of the Association of World Citizens [6], commented that mass deaths are not genocide because the aim is different.He explained clearly that the largest number of deaths since the end of the Second World War was the Chinese agricultural policies between 1958 and 1962 with over 20 million deaths, but the aim was not to destroy the Chinese as a people.In the same way, the other enormous tragedy as the 7 million deaths due to famine in Ukraine 1932-1933 was not genocide with the objective to eliminate the Ukrainian identity. He also commented that the best examples of genocide in the XX Century were the Nazi Holocaust defined for the elimination of the Jews, Gypsies, and other minor ethnic groups. Other examples of genocides were in Africa in Sudan with the physical assassination of tribes and policy to ban marriages and killing "illegal births". Similar in the Democratic Republic of Congo women of specific tribes were raped and their sexual organs were destroyed so that they would not be able to reproduce.

In the paper entitled “Major Wars and Conflicts of The 20th Century” [7] it was commented that the 20th Century was the bloodiest, costliest century of warfare in human history. Indeed, 160 million people were killed by wars in this period in this century until 2012 with the mention of the Syrian civil war, 122 mayor wars were listed [8].

The UN Report of victims of wars in the 20th century [9] cited Matthew White in “Historical Atlas of the Twentieth Century” (2010), which includes military and civilians as the product of war, genocide and intentional famine were 203 million. The following table was extracted from this report:

Deaths by War and Oppression during the 20th Century: 203 million.
























TOTAL: 87M deaths by Communism. RESIDUE: 116M deaths by non-Communism.

This table well illustrates not o­nly that war is killing but that the time of "peace" of militarist/industrial civilization is also a murder but by other means, as well as the fact that both communism and capitalism in it are also murder not much different from each other. This table is strong evidence of crime against humanity of the militarist/industrial civilization as a whole, at any time of peace or war, in all its political systems. This is proof of the inevitability of collapse of this civilization and its replacement by a harmonious and peaceful from harmony conscious civilization based o­n GPS of SPHERONS as conscious actors of peace from harmony, excluding any private violent actors of wars, genocide, and hunger in all political forms.

Only in the eleven major events of the 20th Century, in which more than 1 million civilians were killed in each, were showed in the next table, based o­n data published by the UN REPORT victims of wars in the 20th century [9]:

Facts of Killings and Genocides in the 20th and 21st Centuries 

Period (yrs)


No of victims

Actor of genocide



Congo Free State

8 m

Leopold II Belgium



First World War

7 m

Mainly Europe

7 million civilians + 10 million military [7]


Ottoman Turkey

2.5 m

Ismail Enver

Armenians (1.2 Million), Greek and Anatolian Greek (830 thousand), Assyrians (0.5 Million)



7 m


Soviet forced labor camp systems + famine in Ukraine



12 m

Hitler Nazism

Civilians, Jews and other, intentionally killed in death camps during WWII, included 3 million Russians prisoners



5 m

Hideki Tojo

Civilians in WWII


North Korea

1.6 m

Kim Il Sung

Killed in concentration camps




Up to 78 m

Mao Ze- Dong




1 m

Yakubu Gowon




1.7 m

Pol Pot




1.5 m



Before the XX century, in the not so far past, mankind suffered from tremendous crimes that can be defined as genocides and / or tremendous mass murder:

American indigenous population in what today is United States declined, to 1.8 million from around 50 million. In Brazil it declined from an estimated 3 million to some 300,000 [10]. Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived declined in 150 years, from 70 million to 3,5 million due to deliberate infection, exploitation, slavery, massacres, displacement, etc. [11] o­n the Australian continent during the colonial period (1788–1901), the population of 500,000–750,000 Australian Aborigines was reduced to fewer than 50,000 [12]

American indigenous population in what today is United States declined, to 1.8 million from around 50 million. In Brazil it declined from an estimated 3 million to some 300,000 [12]. Estimates of how many people were living in the Americas when Columbus arrived declined in 150 years, from 70 million to 3,5 million due to deliberate infection, exploitation, slavery, massacres, displacement, etc. [11] o­n the Australian continent during the colonial period (1788–1901), the population of 500,000–750,000 Australian Aborigines was reduced to fewer than 50,000 [12]

Takis Ioannides, a well know journalist and poet from Greece, asked among several questions for an interview for the Newspaper EPIKAIRA (Extra Time) of New Smyrna of Athens[13] "Which is the status of harmony and peace today o­n our planet?" My answer was: “Our current society is at a transcendental crossroads. o­n o­ne hand, the use of natural resources is very efficient, but o­n the other, that same use is endangering the continuity of life o­n our planet. o­n o­ne hand, new technology and systems of intensive production permit us to obtain an elevation in the quality of life for all humanity, but o­n the other, new conflicts are threatening the use of weapons of mass destruction, mainly atomic, and with it the potential destruction of our civilization and life o­n Earth. o­n o­ne hand, the massive development of the media is carrying all the social-economic-political-cultural events to the television screens and Internet of private computers of the inhabitants of all corners of the world, but o­n the other, financial or governmental institutions are manipulating these same media, deforming the news, creating nonexistent realities and “brain-washing” the audience. o­n o­ne hand, human rights have gained the power of international law, and democracy is the most accepted form of government, but o­n the other, individuals are in danger of losing their dignity completely by being transformed into “cogs in a machine” by the economic corporations and the dominant governments. o­n o­ne hand, the fall of the absolutist states has provided people of different countries with the opportunity to dissent, but o­n the other, the new techniques of propaganda via communication are transforming them into manipulated “flocks of sheep”. o­n o­ne hand, science penetrates into the “secrets” of life and the universe, but o­n the other, the pseudo sciences, superstition, fraud and fundamentalist and irrational thought have acquired economic and political power, and promote fanaticism and intolerance. Terrorist movements that are claiming the arrival of the “end of times” use the same extremist fanaticism as religion in order to be justified and to create panic. In other words, there is no harmony and no peace and mankind is playing with mass destructive weapons that can destroy completely the life in our planet.”

Philosophers of all eras addressed the issues: “What is war? And what causes war?” Some theories are determinist and others in freedom. That the first case, war is unavoidably due to different explanations as metaphysical power (religion, more during the Middle Ages), nature of man (biological heritance) and, class struggles (Marxism). Karl Marx wrote that the all written history of existing society is the history of class struggles. (Marx K. Communist Manifest). In all those theories the individuals cannot change this situation and thus are not responsible for that.

Global Peace Science (GPS) is also a deterministic theory, but unlike Marxism, it rejects the absolute nature of the class struggle and recognizes existence of the objective harmonious classes of the population, SPHERONS (this is revolutionary discovery of GPS), which exclude war and class struggle, ensuring global peace and social harmony. But when SPHERONS remain spontaneous, in their composition may emerge the partial and temporary antagonistic groups, which unleashed the wars. This deterministic scientific theory does not exclude, but presupposes the freedom of individuals in knowledge of the laws of peace from harmony. Scientific knowledge (GPS knowledge) and general education in it allows SPHERONS to transform from spontaneous in conscious free actors of global peace from social harmony, which (peace and harmony) are created by them freely o­n the basis of their public consciousness based o­n GPS. In it is a deep revolutionary meaning of this science and its importance for the conscious, scientific building global peace from harmony. Knowing GPS makes people free and responsible for peace-building excluding all the wars of society, for peaceful changing the status quo.

The opposite theory is pacifism, which is the results of rationalism, or in other words; war is the wish of man, and thus, man can avoid war through education.The framework of this paper doesn't permit the presentation of the rich literature of the essays of the many philosophers, since the Ancient Greek to the present times. Among them, it is important to cite Plato, John Locke, Immanuel Kant, David Hum, Voltaire, Karl Marx, Leon Trotsky, Dostoyevsky, Friedrich Nietzsche, Sigmund Freud, Albert Einstein and etc.We should emphasize that our GPS, unlike pacifism, recognizes the objective reasons of peace and war, criticizing the pacifist subjectivism (see chap. 4), but it fully shares the pacifist position concerning people's education and their responsibility as for the wars and for their prevention, i.e. for peace as it was unfolded in GPS other chapters.

The orthodox Marxists always denounced pacifism as negative because tends to attenuate the class struggle and by this, retarding the progress of humanity. When the Soviet Union, due to its security reasons, proclaimed the theory of the development of socialism in o­ne country, appeared Trotskyism holding the theory of the permanent revolution. This concept matches the position that war for justice is better than peace without justice. All that philosophical discussion, that was sustainable in the past, becomes problematic today due to the existence of weapons of mass destruction that threaten the continuation of life o­n the planet. During the last millennium, mankind found in the arms, the technological answer for the solution of the human conflicts. Now, humanity must find a human answer to the danger of extinction from arms. In relation to this, Albert Einstein said "We shall require a substantially new manner of thinking if mankind is to survive." The best answer to the threat of extinction from weapons provides a fundamentally new way of thinking in categories of SPHERONS, spheres, harmony and so o­n of our GPS constituting the new paradigm and revolution of social thinking, knowledge and science, about which Einstein dreamed. To GPS the alternative does not exist.

In order to obtain survival o­n Earth we must achieve world global peace. To achieve world global peace we must obtain a global peace science based o­n harmony. To obtain a global peace science based o­n harmony we must have tolerance to the diversity of views o­n harmony. Without tolerance we will not find unity in peace from harmony and will destroy humanity.

The Preamble of the UNESCO Charter states that, “Wars begin in the minds of men. It is therefore in the minds of men that we must construct the defenses of peace” [14]. The best protection of peace in the minds will GPS and based o­n it a new culture of peace and education in the spirit of love, harmony and tolerance. It is the great challenge for intellectuals, artists and poets, especially for the GPS coauthors.

The conclusion is simple: We need to enroll in a crusade for peace from harmony. It is not easy but it is not a utopia. Public, rulers, intellectuals, artists, journalists, educators and the general public must demand that policy based o­n GPS.

Prof. Emeritus Dr. Ernesto Kahan, MD University Professor – Poet – Physician, Tel Aviv University, Israel. Academician – International Academy of Sciences, Technology, Education and Humanities (AICTEH) – Spain; Honorary President – Israeli Association Writers. Spanish Branch; 1st Vice President – World Academy of Arts and Culture USA; Former Vice President of IPPNW (Association awarded the Nobel Peace Prize) and the actual president of the Israeli Branch; Vice President Intl Forum for Literature and Culture of Peace (IFLAC); GHA “WORLD HARMONY CREATOR” and Vice President. http://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=338;

The GPS Editor in Chief comment. This extremely important article at its discussion in GHA has caused controversy o­n the list of nations and the number of victims of genocide in certain historical periods. The author acknowledged that his UN sources are incomplete, biased and often requires additional research and refinement.

The article was written two years ago, before the Ukrainian coup in February 2014 and followed it genocide and civil war with the Russian population in the south-east of Ukraine, especially in the Donetsk and Lugansk regions. These facts are stubbornly ignored under the pressure of the US and NATO countries that support the new government in Kiev. This information blank, even in a small extent, compensated by other sources, for example, in an article in o­ne of the well-known international websites with the eloquent title: "Media hide as the US sponsored genocide in the south-eastern Ukraine" [15]. It underlined two fundamental points: support for genocide by the USA and concealment of this fact in the Western media. Noteworthy is the fact that the victims of the US many wars and the facts of its genocide are limited or ignored in the UN sources that confirms that this organization is controlled by the USA and does not provide objective, scientifically reliable, data o­n war and peace.


6. The Birth, Meaning and Death of Military Science. Leo Semashko

This article is not intended to be a systematic analysis of military science and is intended to determine its basic characteristics in comparison with global peace science (GPS). In this science in the previous chapters have been identified the causes and aims of war sufficiently, so we will not continue to spread in this regard, as it is no interests peace science, which has very different intentions. Comparison of these sciences has o­nly o­ne purpose: to emphasize the gap of peace science from war science for more than 200 years. This is caused o­n the o­ne (epistemological) hand, the incredible complexity of the subject of peace science as compared with the relative simplicity of the military science subject and, o­n the other (political and social) side, the maximum governmental interest in military science and practical indifference or zero interest to peace science.

Of course, military science, as well as any kind of knowledge, has its problems, contradictions, different philosophical approaches, definitions, scope, scale and other differences at its various theorists, practitioners - generals, in different countries and at different times. For the above reasons, we reserve those issues outside of our article, limiting the birth, meaning and death of military science in comparison with peace science (GPS).

Among the many definitions of military science we will choose its definition from Wikipedia: "Military science is the study of military processes, institutions, and behavior, along with the study of warfare, and the theory and application of organized coercive force. It is mainly focused o­n theory, method, and practice of producing military capability in a manner consistent with national defense policy. Military science serves to identify the strategic, political, economic, psychological, social, operational, technological, and tactical elements necessary to sustain relative advantage of military force; and to increase the likelihood and favorable outcomes of victory in peace or during a war" [16].

Among the many founders of military science, the most frequently mentioned two prominent founder of the military theory with a fundamentally different approach to it, which in their historical evolution found its synthesis. First in time - Adam Heinrich Dietrich, baron von Bülow (1757-1807), who published in 1799 the work: "Spirit of the New System of Warfare" [17]. He was a Republican, a follower of Rousseau and a supporter of the French Revolution. His book was subjected to harsh criticism of all military writers of the XIX century, although all of them have assimilated many of his ideas. The second founder of military science is Carl von Clausewitz (1780-1831), whose main work "On War" was published in 1832 [18]. This work has produced a revolution in military theory. Clausewitz was a monarchist, a follower of Hegel and a fierce opponent of the French Revolution. Both were philosophers, theorists, although in different directions.

Bulow could not quite get rid of antimilitarist and pacifist ideas of Rousseau. He also admitted his desire for world peace as the basis of the war, negative reviews about it. He wrote: "I name the science of war is not about the murder, as it did, but the robbery, since its object is to win, in the robbery of lands, and murder is o­nly the means leading to that goal. The murder still manage to find something noble; it will not be when the goal is clear - robbery. War is the same as stealing, which is punishable by a small scale, and in a large is awarded by laurel wreaths, incense of poets, statues and temples"[Translation of Russian text].

Clausewitz developed the central idea of his theory about continuity of war and politics: "War is nothing more than a continuation of state policy by other means." War is not an absolute phenomenon always inherent in society and o­nly part of it, which is determined its policy. Therefore, "the ultimate goal of war is peace." "The nature of the political goal is in fact a decisive influence o­n the conduct of war." However, the war is killing and violence, "the war is an act of violence, which aims to make the enemy to fulfill our will ... War is a dangerous business, and misconceptions that have their origin in good nature is for it the most detrimental. The use of physical violence in its entirety does not exclude help of mind; therefore the o­ne who enjoys this violence, no embarrassment and not sparing the blood gains a huge advantage over the enemy, who does not do it" [18]. This means that the more ruthless and bloody war will be the greater chance it has to win. So thought Hitler also but he lost the war. Therefore, not all the findings of the military genius of Clausewitz are confirmed. Moreover, the war is increasingly revealing their senselessness, especially in the age of nuclear weapons, which leaves no winners, doing all losers and corpses. Then what is the meaning of war and its science? The geniuses of military science did not foresee the meaninglessness of their discipline as science to kill.

Of course, this senseless and harmful in a whole science that will inevitably and soon enough - by the 21st century end will be unnecessary, has some positive private ideas for GPS that integrates them in the corresponding interpretation. For example, the principle: the best defense is attack. It encourages supporters of peace not to expect in passivity of various wars and actively oppose them in the entire spectrum of nonviolent actions, developed earlier and significantly expanded by GPS. But such research is o­nly to be done in the future. GPS has established that the war is a social pathology, originating from disharmony of private groups and nations, the source of which disappear with the SPHERONS conscious harmony, which set global peace as a natural healthy state of human society. Along with this will die war and all military sciences as irrelevant and quite unnecessary for people.

Together with war and military science will be over all the violent concepts of "security" connected with protection of weapons. We know, and we have stressed many times that the best security of society and humans is peace as a harmony with other societies and people, eliminating the threat of violence and armed attacks. Security in this context is provided by peace and coincides with it. Johan Galtung succinctly expressed it this way: "Dear Francois Hollande, You will never reach peace through security. You reach security through peace. "[19]. In the context of militarism, military science has invented the concept "security" as military substitute of peace. Security is a military defense from external threats, which do not disappear from this protection. Security involves war and weapons, and as a threat and how to protect against them. Peace is a fundamentally different concept. This concept belongs not to military but peace science. It suggests a lack of wars and weapons, and the need to defend against them. It is this concept requires GPS, which reveals the sources and actors excluding from social life and war, and weapons and military science as unnecessary things for it in peace from conscious harmony of SPHERONS, harmonious classes, which include all the population without exception.

“The Kellogg–Briand Pact (or Pact of Paris, officially General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy) was a 1928 international agreement in which signatory states promised not to use war to resolve "disputes or conflicts of whatever nature or of whatever origin they may be, which may arise among them"[20]. Militarism and military science have buried this great peacemaking pact, which now no o­ne remembers, neither the US nor France, nor even the United Nations. Military science and its propagandists have created 13 myths about the benefits of war, which are debunked now [21]. But people still do not know the main alternative to war and violence - social harmony, about which has been talked the outstanding thinkers of the past, starting with Buddha, Confucius, Plato and many others. It is revealed in this book GPS (see chap. 1-4).

Military science degenerates to the science of war crimes against humanity, total war and military dictatorship, which in the US long-buried democracy, turning it into a farce and popular cover of militarism and becoming an instrument of unchangeable, totalitarian and anti-democratic power of the military-industrial-financial elite, is no more than 1% of the population.

This note for the dead of all wars, weapons and their mastermind - military science, as well as simultaneously for the health of global peace from harmony, based o­n GPS we are completing our unprecedented in the history book.

Dr. Leo Semashko. Editor in Chief, Global Peace Science (GPS)



1.Albert Einstein Quotes: http://sfheart.com/einstein.html

2.Toynbee A.J. (1976) Mankind and Mother Earth, London, Oxford Univ. Press, pp. 12-13: http://www.thefederalist.eu/site/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=78&lang=en

3.Willson, Brian S. (Nov. 18, 2015) The US Fear of Peace. http://www.brianwillson.com/page/2/

4.Tomonaga, Masao (2006) Foreword in Kahan E. and Taki Y, Genocide, p. 6-7, first Ed, Nihon Tosho Center Co., LTD, Japan

5.Kahan E. and Taki Y(2006) Genocide, p.1, first Ed, Nihon Tosho Center Co., LTD, Japan

6.Wadlow, Rene (Dec. 9, 2010) Genocide Convention to be strengthened. http://forusa.org/blogs/rene-wadlow/december-9-genocide-convention-be-strengthened

7.Major Wars and Conflicts of the 20th Century, http://www.historyguy.com/major_wars_20th_century.htm#.Ux9ZkXkUHIU

8.Scaruffi, Piero: http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/massacre.html

9.UN REPORT victims of wars in the 20th century. http://necrometrics.com/all20c.htm


11.Genocides in history. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genocides_in_history

12.Population history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas. Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_history_of_indigenous_peoples_of_the_Americas

13.Ioannides, Takis (2009) Interview to Ernesto Kahan. Newspaper EPIKAIRA (Extra Time) of New Smyrna of Athens. May 28, 2009.

14.Miles L. (2000) Education for peace. In Sidel VW, Levy BS, ed. War and Public Health. American Public Health, Association, Washington, 2000; 323-335.

15.Zuesse, Eric (2015) Media Blackout As U.S. Sponsors Genocide In Southeastern Ukraine. http://globalcommunitywebnet.com/Dialogue2015/Newsletter/January2015/authors.html#Zuesse4

16.Military science. Wikipedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Military_science

17.Bülow, Adam Heinrich Dietrich von (1799) Geist des neueren Kriegssystems; “Spirit of the New System of Warfarehttp://global.britannica.com/biography/Adam-Heinrich-Dietrich-Freiherr-von-Bulow

18.Clausewitz, Carl von (1832), On War: http://oll.libertyfund.org/titles/2050

19.Galtung, Johan (2015) Violence In and By Paris: Any Way Out?:


20.Kellogg–Briand Pact (1928): https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kellogg%E2%80%93Briand_Pact

21.Swanson, David (2015) A Global Security System: An Alternative to War. Full text of 77 pages, pp. 54-59. http://worldbeyondwar.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/agss.pdf


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