Home

Mission

Contents

News

Links

Authors

About Us

Publications

Harmony Forum

Peace from Harmony
Rudolf Siebert. The Third Way



Rudolf Siebert. Personal page:

https://peacefromharmony.org/?cat=en_c&key=51

 

The Third Way

by

Rudolf J. Siebert

Professor Emeritus of Comparative Religion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Western Michigan University

Kalamazoo, Michigan

2020

 

The Third Way

While thenotion ofthe Third Wayhas different meanings, it is generallyknown, and may be definedprovisionally as a political philosophy, or theory, and a political praxis, akin to centrism, that attempts to reconcile Rightwing and Leftwing policies and politics.(1) It advocates a varying synthesis ofcapitalism, understood as private appropriation of collective surplus labor, and socialism, understood as collective appropriation of collective surplus value, more specifically of centre-right and centrist economic platforms with more or less centre-left, social policies.(2) However, the notion of the Third Way reaches far beyond the economic and political spheres into the cultural dimension: art, religion, philosophy, and science.

Reconciliation

In Spring 1943, I met at the corner of the Frankfurt a.M. housing complex Friede (Peace, Mir) for veterans from World War I, my old neighbor, Mr. Müller, who was a very brave, most committed communist in the midst of Nazi Germany.He had just come home out of the Concentration Camp Dachau.(3)He was not allowed to talk about his experiences in Dachau. We both listened to the distant thunder of the American saturation bombing of the city of Mainz. In my youthful idiocy, I told Mr. Müller, that I wanted to drive with my bicycle to Mainz, in order to see, what a bombed out city lookedlike. Mr. Müller said, that there was no need to do that, since next week Frankfurt would be bombed out as well: and so it was.Mr. Müller suddenly asked me, if I had ever heard of Georg Wilhelm Hegel. When I said no, Mr Müller got very upset, and agitated, and asked me, how it could be possible that I as a leader in the Catholic Youth Movement and a student at the Humanistic Lessing Gymnasium had never heard of Hegel, the greatest philosopher of history, in spite obviously being an idealist myself. It was a scandal! In fascist Germany, Hegel was a persona non grata, like his student Karl Marx, and notion dialectic as well as reality dialectic were repressed. Counter-revolutionary fascism was extremely positivistic. It was o­nly long after the end of the war, that I heard in the universities of Frankfurt,Mainz andMünster about Hegel'sdialectical logic, and about his middle position, his Third Way. Now I heardthe first time about the notion as unity of universal, particular and singular, and of the idea as notion, judgement and conclusion in Hegel'sScience of Logic.(4) The middle stood or behaved in the conclusion as subsuming against the singularity,and subsumed against the universality. In the notion the particular was the middle between the universal and the singular. In the idea the judgement was the middle between the notion and the conclusion. The essence stood between being and notion, and constituted their middle.(5) The middle appeared as totality of the determinations in the conclusion of the reflexion. The middle as notion appeared as an ought. There was even an absolute middle. The position of the middle in the conclusion, the judgement, was most important for progress.(6) According to Hegel's philosophy of nature, the magnetism was the middlebetween the being - in - it - self and the having - realized - itself of nature.(7) The real middle was the o­ne, which was to bring the difference into existence. The middle was the transition, that the form sank down into the external, which had another internality. In Hegel's aesthetical view,theancient Greeks lived in the happy middle between the self-conscious, subjective freedom, o­n o­ne hand, and the socio-ethical substance, or notion, of the spheres of family, civil society, political state, history, art, religion, philosophy, o­n the other.(8) In Hegel's philosophical-historical perspective, the middle was the truth, and the abstract extremes were the untruth.(9) The old Greeks lost the truth, when the sophists emphasized the self-conscious, subjective freedom and civil society against the socio-ethical substance of the polis. Finally civil society triumphed over the state, and destroyed it. Plato tried to rescue the state by showinga sophist,his teacher Socrates, discovering a new hold in the chaos, a new daimonion, reason as conscience, and thus a new truth, a new middle between subjective freedom of the individual and the objective freedom of the polis.(10) But Plato's rescue operation failed. Socrates was executed by the Athenian state, and the polis fell victim to civil society and the sophists. Something similar happened in the ancient Jewish state, in Jerusalem. Rabbi Jesus of Nazareth brought a new, revolutionary truth, a new balance between subjectivefreedomandobjective solidarity, and was executed with the help of the Jewish state, o­n the charge of blasphemy, and by the Roman state, o­n the charge of insurrection, and Jerusalem was destroyedby the Roma Army o­nly a generation later, in the year 70, for 2000 years to come.(11) Mr. Müller showed me the road not o­nly to Hegel's philosophy of mediation and reconciliation ofthe antagonisms between abstract extremes, but also to the truth, the middle way, the Third Way, in the midst of the fascist untruth, the extreme of authoritarian populism, and exclusive identity politics, directed most fanatically againstsocialism and communism.(12) Hegel's students could not hold o­n to his middle way, and thus his school broke apart into the extremes of the Hegelian Left and the Hegelian Right, into praxis philosophy, o­n o­ne hand, and positivism and fascism, o­n the other.(13) I never saw Mr. Müller again.He, the communist, was swallowed up by the fascist empire, the Third Reich, against whichhehad fought most heroically.

Solidarism

In the midstofNazi Germany, I became early o­n a memberof the Catholic Youth Movement in Frankfurt a.M.(14) o­n the basis of the Empire Concordat between Adolf Hitler and the Vatican, which is still valid today in the German Federal Republic, the Catholic Youth Movement was allowed to exist. But soon the fascist state followed the ancient Roman principle Non licet esse vos. The Concordat was broken by the fascist state, and the Catholic and Protestant Churches were persecuted, and some of my Catholic leaders were tortured and murdered. The Catholic Youth Movement was critical of fascism and Anti- Semitism, and helped persecuted Jews, and spread the episcopal letters of Bishop Graf von Galen in Münster against Nazi concentration camps as well as against allied saturation bombing, and sided with the Bishop of Limburg Antonius, who fought against fascist euthanasia, the murdering of ten thousands of mentally ill patients in hospitals in his diocese, and was continually watchedand investigated by the Gestapo. In the Catholic Youth Movement, I became familiar with the Papal social encyclicals and with the Catholic solidarism, which they represented:a middle way, a Third Way between liberalism and fascism, o­n o­ne hand, and socialism and communism, o­n the other, between the private appropriation of collective surplus labor,and the collective appropriation of collective surplus value.(15) It stressed strongly the rights of the workers against oppression and exploitation by the capitalists, but still allowed for the private ownership of the means of production, and the consequent private appropriation of surplus labor. Unfortunately, Catholic solidarism did not prevent the alliance between the Vatican and the fascist states, like Italy, Germany, Spain, Portugal, or Croatia, motivated mainly by an irrational fear of and hate against atheistic socialism and communism, in spite of the fact, that the Church had been communistic in its beginning, and that all monastic orders had remained communistic throughout the centuries, up to the present.(16) While the Vatican followed theoretically its solidarism, it did not practice its own Third Way, being inclined politicallymore toward the Right, toward liberalism and fascism, than toward the Left,socialism and communism. o­nly very recently the Vatican has corrected theoretically and practically its former Rightwing o­ne-sidedness, and has made agreements with the Russian Federation, and with China in faithfulness to its own Third Way, its solidarism.

Critical Theory of Society

I encountered another form of the philosophy of the Third Way as a prisoner of war in Camp Allen, Norfolk, Virginia, USA, in 1945-1946.(17)In Camp Allen, I was categorized as Anti-Nazi by Jewish-American secret service agents, who knew Germany, and German, and particularly my hometown Frankfurt a.M. better than I did. I was identified as Anti-Fascist because of my leadership role in the Catholic Youth Movement in Frankfurt. Thedialectical International Institute for Social Research at the Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Universität, the later Frankfurt School, which had fled from Nazi Germany to Columbia University in New York, when Adolf Hitler came into power,and the phenomenological New School, in New York,the later New School University, had convinced the liberal, Democratic Roosevelt Administration, particularly Mrs Roosevelt and the New Dealers, against the cabinet member Morgenthau, that not all Germans had been fascists, and that there was hope for Germany and Europe.(18)Thus happened the Marshall plan. Thus, together with 25,000 other Anti-Fascist prisoners, out of 300,000 German prisoners and 100,000 Italian prisoners in the USA, mainly caught in North Africa, I was chosen to be trained and educated by social scientists from the best American universities in liberal,political economics and sociology, in order then to be sent home to help with the liberalization and democratization of the defeated Germany, and to transformthe fascist state into a liberal o­ne. Some of the American, political economists and sociologists were not o­nly familiar with the phenomenological theory of the New School, but also with the competing, critical, dialectical, theory of society of the Frankfurt School, influenced not o­nly by Kant and Hegel, but also by Schopenhauer, Marx, Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, and Freud. Thus, in Camp Allen, I encountered the first time the critical theory of society of Horkheimer, Adorno, Benjamin, Fromm and Marcuse.(19)The critical theory presented another form of a Third Way between liberalism and socialism. o­nly o­ne critical theorist, Herbert Marcuse, had ever belonged for a short time to the Communist Party in Germany. Most critical theorists fled from fascism to liberal America rather than to socialist Russia. From liberal America, they fought fascism in America, and in Europe. In liberal America, they found the opportunity to struggle against the authoritarian personality, characterized by romanticism, nationalism, capitalism, sadism, masochism, and racism, and the authoritarian populism, and the exclusive identity ideology, policies and politics: ideology understood critically as false consciousness, masking of particular economic and political interests, shortly the untruth.(20) With great consistency, the critical theorists walked the middle way between the extremes of the revolutionary and the authoritarian personality, thefree market and the planned economy, liberalism and Western and Eastern Marxism, individualism and collectivism, self-conscious, subjective freedom and socio-ethical substance, the Hegelian Left and the Hegelian Right, praxis philosophy and positivism, faith and enlightenment, revelation and autonomous reason.(21) Since 1960, Adorno foresaw,and warned against,and resisted the renewal of authoritarian populism, and exclusive identity politics, and Trumpism in Europe, and America, and elsewhere, and so did all other critical theorists, including myself and my friends, who derived from the critical theory of society our Critical Theory of Religion and Society (CTRS) since the end of World War II, as another form of the Third Way.(22) While the critical theorists of society from Adorno to Habermas became old, but not pious, the critical theorists of religion became old, and remained believers.(23)

Frankfurter Hefte

After my return fromthe prisoner of war Camp Allen to Frankfurtin 1946, I encountered the philosophy of the Third Way in the form of the Frankfurter Hefte, a Leftwing Catholic journal for culture and politics, which aimed at a middle way, at the reconciliation of the modern antagonism between the religious and the secular,the sacred and the profane, Church and world, Christians and workers, Christianity and Marxism, the individual and the collective.(24) I met with the founders, owners and editors of The Frankfurter Hefte, Walter Dirks and Eugen Kogon, who were closely connected with the critical theorists, Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno, two pairs ofDioscuri. After the end of World War II, Horkheimer and Adorno had returned from American exile to the ruins of Frankfurt and the Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Universität, in order to rebuild again their Institute for Social Research, which had been destroyed throughan American bombardment of Frankfurt toward the end of the war, and had met Dirks and Kogon again, whom they knew already from before the war.My friend Walter Dirks was an outstanding journalist and theologian, who had resisted National Socialism from its very start, and who, therefore, had been imprisoned, and who spent the World War II in internal exile in Southern Germany. Eugen Kogon was a Jew, who had converted to Christianity.He was a political scientist, who for his resistance against fascism had spent seven years in the Concentration Camp Buchenwald. With American military support Kogon wrote his famous book about the Nazi concentration camps, entitled the SS State. Dirks and Kogon formed a new Christian Democratic Party, which aimed at a social state, and in which they wanted to reconcile workers and Christians. They worked for a European Union, in which Germany would be reunited with the other European countries. They promoted a theology of revolution, in which Marxists and Christians came into discourse with each other.(25)From Dirks and Kogon, I learned how to practice the Third Way politically in Germany, Europe and the USA. Walter became old, holding o­n to his highest values of marriage, Eucharist and socialism, and remained pious to his death o­n the feast day of Corpus Christi. Kogon became old and less pious, suffering from the unresolved theodicy problem:the justice of God in the face of the monstrous injustices in his world, be it Auschwitz or Buchenwald, Hiroshima or Nagasaki, the Covid19 Coronavirus pandemic or the economic depression of 2020, without any divine intervention.(26) Late in their lives, Dirks and Kogon sold the Frankfurter Hefte to the Social Democratic Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, which renamed it Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter Hefte. remaining faithful to the Third Way, intended by Dirks and Kogon. Conrad Adenauer transformed the Christian Democratic Party, the CDU , in terms of his restoration program into o­ne, which aimed again at a liberal state, and united the Catholic and Protestant bourgeoisie, and pushed the workers out into the hands of the great socialist leader Schumacher, whom Kogon had met already in the Concentration Camp Buchenwald and finally outlawed completely the Communist Party.While the CDU moved, like the former Catholic Center Party in the Weimar Republic, which gave Adolf Hitler the emergency laws and made him legitimately into a dictator, further and further toward the Center/Right, it retained nevertheless avery productive social wing, to which I belonged for some time. Walter also belonged to the CDU, while Kogon joinedthe Social Democratic Party, SDP. Their Third Way succeeded in the formation of the European Union, in which they were very much engaged. The Adenauer restoration of the antagonistic liberal state and civil society, made the return of authoritarian populism, or Trumpism, easily predictable for Adorno andthe critical theorists of society and the critical theorists of religion at least since the beginning of the 1960ties.

Humanism

My doctoral dissertation at the University of Mainz brought me in contact with the Third Way of humanists like Erasmus of Rotterdam and Thomas More.(27)I wrote about the humanist and Augustinian theologian and Suffragan Bishop Michael Helding of Mainz, who belonged to a group of humanists and theologians, who from 1530-1540 wanted to reunite again Protestants and Catholics and rescue the unity of the Western Church. Helding, the Catholic, understood well, like the lay Cardinal Contarini, the Augustinian Eremite Martin Luther's theology of justification. Helding also wanted like Luther to reform the Western Church, butwithout destroying its unity, so that it wouldn't fall apart into 30,000 churches, denominations, sects, and cults, as indeed it happened. This disintegration of the Western Church threatened the truth claim of Christianity, the Religion of Becoming, Freedom and Final Manifestation itself.Helding was critical of the Lutheran reformation as well as of the Jesuit counter-reformation, and was searching, and working, and fighting for a Third Way between them. He searched for the truth in the middle, recognizing truth elements in both extremes, and rejecting the untruth o­n both sides. Helding was the o­nly German Bishop, who came from the farmer class, which at 1525 made a revolution, lead by Thomas Münzer, against Karl V and the feudal lords.(28) Helding fought o­n o­ne hand for social justice for the farmers,andon the other hand at the same time, as leader of the Catholic party, served well his Emperor Karl V, who executed Münzer after the battle at Mühlhausen,Thüringia, and killed 100,000 revolutionary farmersand their families during thesummer of 1525, and wanted to kill Luther, because he destroyed his Church and his Empire. Helding served Karl's brother and successor,Emperor Ferdinand, as President of his Supreme Court in Vienna, and was buried in the St. Stephan's Cathedral in Vienna, in 1561. Helding did not o­nly look for a Third Way beyond the opposing religious parties, but also beyond the antagonistic social classes. The farmer revolution anticipated not the bourgeoise revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries, but rather the socialist revolutions of the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries.For the time being, the untrue extremes prevailed against the true center. But an Una Sancta movement and a humanist-socialist movement prevailed through the centuries, which movements continue to search for a possible Third Way, up to the present, 2020.

Tetra Philosophy

During o­ne of my many trips to Russia, I came to Petrograd, or St. Petersburg, and there met my good friend, Professor Leo Semashko and his dear wife. We had common friends, like the great sociologist Johan Galtung, director of the IUC in Dubrovnik, Yugoslavia, and the famousmost critical linguistNoam Chomsky in the USA. We had good private and public discourses inside and outside the University of St. Petersburg. I became familiar with Leo's TetraPhilosophy and Sociology, which later o­n, in 2005, lead to his foundation ofthe Global Harmony Association (GHA), of which I became an early member.(29) The Tetra Philosophy embraced four nonviolence noospheres: sociosphere, infosphere, technosphere, and orgsphere. I discovered in the Tetra Philosophy another ingenious form of a third energy or power, a Third Way, between the Hegelian Left and the Hegelian Right, the young Karl Marx and Talcot Parsons.Long before the collapse of the Soviet Unionand the victory of the counter-revolutionary neo-liberalism, Leo became critical of Marxism-Leninism, particularly of its theory of class and violent national and international class struggle. His longing for harmony and peace lead Leo finally to Mahatma Gandhi's theory and practice of passive resistance, a Hindu translation of the Christian Sermon o­n the Mount, particularly its fourth commandment:

You have learned how it was said: Eye for eye and tooth for tooth.But I say this to you: offer the wicked man no resistance.On the contrary,if anyone hits you o­n the right cheek, offer him the other as well....(30)

 

Martin Luther King became familiar at Boston College with Hegel's Philosophy of History and its teaching, that the Freedom of All was the universal goal of humanity.(31)King applied this theory to the fate of the African American people in the USA, and later o­n to Vietnam, and to all other oppressed and exploited nations:and for this he was assassinated and martyrized. But King did not receive his non-violent method of liberation from the Christian Hegel, but rather fromMahatma Gandhi, who belonged to Hinduism, the Religion of Imagination, but found his method in Christianity as the Religion ofFreedom, which he liked more than Judaism, the Religion of Sublimity, and the vengeance of Yahweh Sabbath, the God of the Armies, and of War.(32) For Gandhi the Truth was God.(33) Leo became a non-conformist in the Russian universities and still is today. But while Leo was critical of Eastern Marxism and the Soviet version of it, Marxism - Leninism, he was most passionately opposed to its archenemy, the deadly European, and American, and Asian fascism in all its forms: its violent aristocratic principle of nature.(34) Leo's father fell at the beginning of Barbarossa, in the fascist battle against Leningrad, and he had to grow up without a father. Leo likes the American Republic , but is opposed to the militaristic American Empire, andits Constantinian Christendom.(35)But, of course, o­ne can not speak about imperialism and militarism, be it in the 1940's or in the 2020's without speaking about capitalism as the private appropriation of collective surplus labor, and without remembering the departing U.S. President Eisenhower's prophetic warning against the Military, Industrial, Congressional Complex.(36) The Tetra Philosophy and Sociology constitutes through its spheral class theory a bridge between the social and natural sciences, and asynthetic pillar of their unity.It also reconciles philosophy and science, spherons' genome andcybernetics, and statistics, theory and praxis: educational as well as political. In contrast to atheistic Marxism - Leninism and pagan Fascism, and the many non-believers, Nones, among the Liberals, the Tetra Philosophy is a Third Way between natureand man,between Orient and Occident, between individual and collective, betweencivil society and political state, between secular enlightenmentand religion, be it Hinduism , as the Religion of Imagination, Buddhism as the Religion of Inwardness, Judaism, as the Religion of Sublimity,Christianity,as the Religion of Freedom,Islam,as the Religion of Law, or other positive religions as well, between metaphysics and post-metaphysics, between naturalism and supernaturalism, between monism and dualism, beteen idealism and materialism,between atheism and ethical theism, between immanence and Transcendence.(37)The Tetra Philosophy shows a great, new Third Way fromviolent 20th century Guernica to peaceful harmonious 21st centuryGandhica!(38)

Resonance

At present, in 2020, European Social Democrats are looking in the midst of the process of globalization, of Covid19 Pandemic, of economic depression, for a new middle ground between the extremes of individualism and collectivism, neo-liberalism and neofascism and Trumpism: a new solidarity, a new inclusive identity theory, politics and policies, versus the newly rising authoritarian populism and exclusive identity politics, a new We,shortly a new Third Way.(39) They search for a new center between personal autonomy and socio-ethical substance, and between man andnature.Some people say:We are the climate, and suggest that we should rescue our planet climate already at breakfast.(40) Others tell us, that we are creatures of the forest and want to answer the question, why we are inseparably connected with the trees around us.(41)Others want to show us, why migration belongs to the new We, the new middle way, and look for a different history for the Germans, the Europeans, the Americans, the Russians, etc...(42) Again other people ask, when if not we, and present us with an Extinction-Rebellion Handbook, which prophezies in religious or secular terms, that after the apocalypse of Adolf Hitler and the apocalypse of Joseph Stalin our hour has finally come.(43) Others say, when if not we, and indicate that the new We,may possibly be the new middle,after the old center does no longer hold,and after all the old middles have miserably failed. The little word We has certainly an enormous binding power. But it has unfortunately also a large snag. Precisely the inclusive identity people may produce and reproduce their own opposite, the exclusive identity people.(44)But, o­n first sight the new We seems to be a good idea. It is connected with a homely we-feeling. It promises community, concord, harmony, solidarity and identity. Since the discovery of the mirror neurones, maybe anticipated by speculative (Latin speculum-mirror) thinking and philosophy, people know, that thiswe-feeling is anchored early and deeply in the structure of the human brain. The new discovery explains, how we become, and who we are, and how the human self arises and results through resonance from the other, the you, the we.(45)The human ex-embryo, the infant, the baby, who for religious people is human from conception o­n, and can therefore not be aborted, has for secular scientists at birth no self yet.Like the language, the human selfdevelops itself o­nly after birth, throughbeing spoken to. The beginnings of the becoming self take place in the first about 24 life-months, and rest o­n resonances, which the infant causes in the related persons around him or her, mother, father, doctors, nurses, etc., and which return back to him or her. The baby's relational persons serve him or her as a kind of external self, an alter Ego. Physical closeness is o­ne of the presuppositions of such resonances. Today, o­ne may add with the scientists, and completely without any irony:as continuously close as the mother was in the early childhood, is for the younger and older people today at all events still the smartphone, the zoom, the Skype. But first of all must still be held o­n to, what the great Jewish mystic, Martin Buber, emphasized:

Man becomes I through Thou.(46)

 

Out of Thou and I became dialectically the We.(47) This linguists can read from o­ne of the few languages, which originated in historically handed down andtransmitted times: namely, the so called Pidginenglish ortok pisin. This Pidginenglish is a good example for the historical fact, that the same societies, whoengaged in racism, colonialism and slavery, have also promoted strategies of communication for the overcoming at least linguistical otherness. Still the bourgeois Hegel would try to overcome the contradiction between Judaism, the Religion of Sublimity, Christianity, the Religion of Freedom,and Islam, the Religion of Law, as such outlawing slavery, but Jews, Christians and Muslims, nevertheless, having slaves for centuries, by simply asserting linguistically, that such actual slavery was merely accidental, and not substantial.(48) To be sure, that merely linguistic strategy did not help the slaves very much, but was just ideological apologetics for the three AbrahamicReligions.(49)In Pidginenglish, the We is formed dialectically out of the combination ofYou and Meinto Youme. But also here shows itself the snag, because besides the inclusive We, or identity, which includes the o­ne spoken too, there exists also an exclusive We, or identity, which exludes a You in the singular or plural. We are white, but you are black, is an example for an exclusive We or identity, which first of all conveys o­nly a visual impression, and which could be transformed into an inclusive We through the addition: but we all are human beings. But it is the snag, the negative, in the new We, which makes it problematic as a new Third Way, and points beyond it to other, more than merely linguistic possibilities: such rooted not o­nly in the human potential of language and memory, but also in the evolutionary universals of work and tool, sexual and erotic love, struggle for recognition, andcommunity. Thus, the search continues for a Third Way between the strategy of manifoldness, and colorfulness, and inclusion, o­n o­ne hand, and the strategy of identitaryhomogeneity, and exclusion.(50)

 

Critical Theory of Religion

When in 1946, I returned from the Prisoner of War Camp Allen to Frankfurt, in order to start my democratization work in the conqueredGermany, I also began, as mentioned above, with my friends to develop the Critical Theory of Religion and Society, the CTRS, as a new Third Way.(51) We followed very much the Third Way of Dirks and Kogon and their Frankfurter Hefte, later the Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter Hefte, and Horkheimer and Adorno, and their Institute for Social Research, the critical theory of society of the Frankfurt School.(52)There exists an enigmatic sentence by Adorno, the most ingenious critical theorist,which fascinated usfrom the very beginning:

Nothing of theological content will continue unchanged: each will have to expose itself to the test, to immigrate into the secular, the profane.(53)

 

Along the guide of this sentence,CTRShas tried through half a century in many books, articles, and videos to represent in theory and praxis theimmigration ofprogressive religious and theological contents into the profane thinkingas a philosophically and scientifically understandable and comprehensible learning process.(54) This genealogy of metaphysical as well as post-metaphysicalthinking can be understood as an attempt to encouragewhat the enlightener, ImmanuelKant, called the use of peoplesrational freedom.(55) For CTRS, informed by Adorno and Habermas, there exist good reasons, not to encounter the intimidating, most complex challenges of the present world historical situation with egocentric self confidence, or with a fatalistic, or overoptimistic trust in systems. CTRS has been an attempt, toreconcile faith and knowledge, revelation and autonomous reason.CTRS saw the believers Dirks and Kogon, as migrants into the profane discourse of expert cultures, always searching for the spark of truth. Throughout its evolution, CTRS traced the historical process from the original Ancient and Medieval relative union between the sacred and the profane, through their modern disunion, toward their possible post-modern reunion. The modern antagonism between the religious and the secular, also split the religious communities into those believers, who fundamentalistically held o­n to revelation and tradition, and other believers, who were open toward the modern bourgeois, Marxian and Freudian enlightenment movements andrevolutions, andthuswere willing to find a Third Way of mediation and reconciliation, as e.g. Kogon and Dirks. The modern discrepancy between the sacred and the profane divided also the non-believing, secular enlightenment community into those non believers, or Nones, who wanted religion, as childhood affair of humanity, to disappear as fast as possible, and those Nones, who tried to preserve progressive elements from religion, e.g. the Sermon on the Mount, and to allow them to migrate, or to be translated, into Modernity, and were thus willing to find a Third Way of reconciliation, ase.g. Horkheimer and Adorno. While the critical theorists from Horkheimer and Adorno to Habermas and Axel Honneth said a clear and definite Non Credo, they knew, nevertheless, that Modernity would derail, ifthe world-designing spontaneity of human reason would dry up into a mere transcendence from inside.(56) This energy of reason is intrinsic to the communication conditions of man's social existence, but it is in no way guaranteed by it transcendentally.The CTRS must admit with the critical theorists, that the secular Modernity has with good reasons departed from the Transcendent. But CTRS also knows, like the critical theorists, that the human reason would waste away further with the disappearance of every thought, which transcends what is in the world in its totality: what Adorno and Horkheimer called the entirely Other than the horror and terror of nature and human history.(57) In this case, the Ego without Transcendence would lose moral control over the impulses from outside, the natural and social environment, and the impulses from inside, the Id and the Super-Ego, and would thus be further weakened in terms of themental illness of Ego-Weakness, discovered in the 1920's in Europe, and widely spread in civil societytoday. The defense and protection against such entropy is o­ne point of contact between post-metaphysical thinking and the religious and the metaphysical consciousness. During my studies in the 1950's and 1960's, the University of Frankfurt answered Kant's question Is metaphysics possible?, with Noand the University of Mainz with Yes. As far as the antagonism between the religious and the secular is concerned, the contact point between the opposing sacred and the profane is true, as long as the religious consciousnessembodies and personifies itself not o­nly in moral and political action, as Horkheimer stressed, but also in the cult andin the liturgical praxisof a community, as it, e.g., happens daily in the Greek or Russian, Orthodox, or Roman Catholic Mass,as the most outstanding,post-metaphysical philosopher, Jürgen Habermas, emphasizes, and as long as it asserts itself thereby as a present form of the human spirit.(58)The liturgy and the rites claim to bring about the connection with a highest Power, which breaks out of the Transcendence into the finite world. As long as the religious experience canstill find supportin such praxis of visualizing or recalling of a strong Transcendence, it remains a thorn in the flesh of a Modernity, which gives in all to easilyto thesuction, or the maelstrom, toward a being entirely without Transcendence. To that extend, the religious experience will also still hold open for the secular reason the question, if there are unsatisfied semantic contents, which are still awaiting a translation into the profane. To that extend,a Third Way remains possible.

 

References

1. Wikipedia.Third Way.Political Philosophy 2020

2. Wikipedia. Ibid.

_____.Marx, Karl,Theories of Surplus Value. London: Lawrence and Wishart 1972

_____.Siebert, Rudolf J., Die Anthropologie Michael Heldings, eines Humanisten und Theologen im Umkreis der Geistigen Neuordnung des 16. Jahrhunderts (1506-1561). Sigmaringen:Hohenzollernsche Jahreshefte 1965.

_____. A German Experience, in At the Cross Road, 5 (2 and 3):12-14.1966

Recht, Macht und Liebe:Georg W. Rudolphis Prophetische Politische Theologie. Frankfurt a. M. :Haag and Herchen.1993

_____.The Critical Theory of Religion:The Frankfurt School. Lanham, MD:The Scarecrow Press. 2001

_____. From Critical Theory to Political Theology:Personal Autonomy and Universal Solidarity. New York:Peter Lang Publishing. 2002a

_____.La théorie critique de la religion de Theodor Adorno:théologie inverse contre clérico-fascisme, in XAlta, Terreur et Sacralité. Novembre, Number 8. Abjat/Bandiat, France. 2004a

_____.Le Relatif et le Transcendant:la sociologie critique de la religion de MaxHorkheimer. Translated from English by Fabien Ollier and Henri Vaugrand. Paris:LHarmattan. 2005b

_____.Manifesto of the Critical Theory of Society and Religion:The Wholly Other, Liberation, Happiness and the Rescue of the Hopeless. Leiden :Brill Publisher(Vol, I, II, III)., 2010 b .

_____.The Evolution of the Critical Theory of Religion and Society:Union, Disunion and Reunion of the Sacred and the Profane ( 1946-2020).New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers 2020.

3. Marx. Ibid. 1972

_____.Siebert op.cit. 1966; 1993.

_____.Weitensteiner, Hans. K. Warum denn wir, immer wir. . ?War diese Stadt Frankfurt schuldiger als London? Katholisches Gemeindeleben im Dritten Reich und während der ersten Nachkriegsjahre 1932-1950. Dokumente und Darstellung. Frankfur a. M.: Haag und Herchen. 2000

_____.Hegel, Georg W.Nürnberger und Heidelberger Schriften 18081817. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1986d

4. Hegel, Georg, W. F.Nürnberger und Heidelberger Schriften 18081817. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1986d : 137

5.Hegel, Georg. W. F. Wissenschaft der Logik II. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1986f: 15-16,380-381, 400, 424.

6. Hegel, Georg W. F. Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften I. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 1986h: 340-341,

7. Hegel, Georg W. F.Enzyklopädie der philosophischen Wissenschaften II. Frankfurt a. M.Suhrkamp Verlag. 1986i : 217, 313, 442,

8. Hegel, Georg, W. F. Vorlesungen über die Ästhetik II. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1986n: 25.

9. Hegel, Georg W. F. Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Philosophie II. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag 1986s: 94.

10. Platon. Symposium in the Dialogues of Plato. New York:Charles Scribners Sons. 1905

Sokrates im Gespräch. Frankfurt a. M. :Fischer Bücherei.1955

Gorgias. , In M. Himick, Platos Rebuke to Politicians, in Knowledge News. Net. o­ne East Main Street # 423, Campaign, Illinois. 2008

11.Matthew 5-7.

_____.John18: 28-40

_____.Revelation 21-22

12. Marcuse, Herbert. Reason and Revolution: Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory. Boston:Beacon Press 1960.

_____.Soviet Marxism:A Critical Analysis. New York:Random House. 1961

_____.Eros and Civilization:A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. New York: Vintage Books 1962.

_____. 1965. The Ideology of Death in H. Feifel (Ed),The Meaning of Death. New York

_____. 1967. One Dimensional Man:Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society. Boston:Beacon Press.

_____.Negations:Essays in Critical Theory. Boston:Beacon Press 1969a

_____.An Essay o­n Liberation. Boston:Beacon Press. 1969b

13. Marcuse op.cit 1960

_____.Hartleb.Florian. Virtuelle Dimensionen des Rechtsterrorismus als neue Bedrohungslage, In Neue Gesellschaft/Franfurter Hefte 1 / 2/ 2020 / 67

_____.Müller, Michael/Jörg Sommer/Hans-Gerd Marian . Die braunen eiten im Narurschutz. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 1/2/ 2020 / 67.

_____.Schraven,Benjamin./Robert Oakes/ Kees von der Geest. Ansätze einer adaequaten Klimamigrationsforschung. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte1/2/2020 67.

_____.Brandt, Peter.Ein unabhängiger Linkssozialismus im geteilten Deutschland. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 7/ 8/ 59.2012

_____.Neuer Blick auf die deutsche Arbeiterbewegung. In Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter _____.Hefte 6/60. 2013.

_____."Die Ukraine-Nation im Werden oder gescheiterte Nationsbildung." In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte. 4/62. 2015

_____.Das Betriebsrätegesetz von 1920. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte. 1/2/2020/ 67.

_____.Meier, Horst.Von Schonräumen und zarten Seelen. Zur aktuellen Debatte uuber die Redefreiheit in den USA In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte. 1 / 2/ 2020 / 67.

_____.Dauderstädt, Michael. 2012. Arbeitslosigkeit und Wählerverhalten. In Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter Hefte 7/8/59.

_____.Deutschland eine Klassengesellschaft, In Neue Gesellschaft/Frankfurter _____.Hefte1 / 2 / 2020/ 67.

_____.Däumler-Gemelin, Herta. 2014."CETA,TTIP, und der demokratische Rechtsstaat." In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 10/61.

_____.Davidoff.Steven.M .2014."Outrage over Wall St, Pay,but Shrugs for Silicin Valley." In The New York Times.Bussiness . Wednesday, February 19. B 9.

_____.Davidson, Neil. 2013."Is there anything to defend in political Marxism.?" In ISR.International Socialist Review.Quarterly Journal of Revolutionary Marxism.Issue 91-Winter 2013-201Siebert ibid, 1993.

_____.Siebert, ibid.1993.

14. Siebert, ibid. 1993.

_____.Weitensteiner ibid. 2000

15. Marx Ibid. 1972

_____.Acts 2: 42-47; 4: 33-35.

16. Lortz, Joseph..Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus.Second edition 1934.

_____.Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band I. Vorraussetzungen. Aufbruch. Erste Entscheidungen. Freiburg:Herder.1962A

_____.Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band II. Ausbau der Fronten. Unionsversuche. _____.Ergebnis. Freiburg:Herder. 1962b

_____.Geschichte der Kirche. Münster:Verlag. Aschendorff. 1964

17.Siebert. Ibid.1993

18. Jay, Martin. The Dialectical Imagination:A History of the Frankfurt School and the Institute for Social Research 19231950. Boston and Toronto:Little Brown and Company. 1973

_____.Marxism & Totality. The Adventures of a Concept from Lukacs to Habermas. Berkeley:University of California Press. 1984.

19. Horkheimer, Max,Theodor W.Adroorno. Dialectic of Enlightenment:Philosophical Fragments, ed. by Gunzelin Schmid Noerr [ed.] Translated by Edmund Jehcott. Stanford, California:Stanford University Press. 2002 .

20. Adorno, Theodor W. / Else Frenkel- Brunswik/ Daniel L. Levinson/ R. Nevitt Sanford. The Authoritarian Personality. New York:W. W. Norton & Company Inc. 1969

_____.Adorno, Theodor W. , et al.The Positivist Dispute in German Sociology. Trans. by Glyn Adey and David Frisby. New York:Harper and Row.1976

21. Marcuse ibid. 1960.

_____.Adorno, op.cit.. 1969.

_____.Ibid. 1976.'

_____.Horkheimer.Adorno op.cit,, 2002

_____.Habermas,Jürgen. Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie.Band 1.Die okzodentale Konstellation vin Glauben and Wissen.Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019.

_____.ibid. Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie.Band 2.Vernünftige Freiheit,Spuren des Diskurses über Glauben und Wissen.Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019.

22. Marcuse ibid. 1960.

_____.Adorno, op.cit.. 1969.

_____.Ibid. 1976.

_____.Horkheimer/Adorno op.cit, 2002

_____.Müller ,op.cit. 2020.

_____.Schraven, op. cit.2020.

_____.Brandt. op. cit. 2012.: 2013; 2015;

_____.Siebert, Rudolf.The Critical Theory of Religion:The Frankfurt School. Lanham, MD:The Scarecrow Press. 2001

_____.From Critical Theory to Political Theology:Personal Autonomy and Universal Solidarity. New York:Peter Lang Publishing 2002a.

_____.The Future of Religion:The Rescue of Religious Motives and Motivations through their Inverstion into Secular Discourse, in Traditional Religion and Culture in a New Era, Reimon Bachika [ed. ] New Brunswick:Transaction Publishers. 2002b

_____.The Open Dialectic of Jewish, Christian and Islamic Monotheism and Radical Enlightenment:Toward a Global Ethos of Autonomy and Solidarity in Religion in Civil Society, Materials of the III International Seminar, November in Yalta, Tatyana A. Senyushkina [ed. ]. Simferopol:Tauria. 2002 c.

23. Arens, Edmund..Kommunikatives Handeln und Christlicher Glaube, Ein theologischer

Diskurs mit Jürgen Habermas. Paderborn:Ferdinand Schöningh. 1997

_____.Gottesverständigung.Eine kommunikative Religionstheologie. Freiburg: Herder. 2007

_____.Alt, aber nicht fromm, in Herder Korrespondenz 63/2:79-83. 2009

_____. Letter. (unpublished ). 2012

_____.Welche Zukunft wollen wir? URL: www.theologie-und-kirche.de/arens-abschiedsvorlesung.pdf./Schweizerische Kirchen-Zeitung.2.11.2017a

_____.2017b Karl-Otto Apel. Ein Nachruf. In feinschwarz.net.Theolgisches Feuilleton.

_____.Arens, Edmund, O. John, and R. Rottländer 1991. Erinnerung, Befreiung, Solidarität, Benjamin, Marcuse, Habermas und die politische Theologie. Düsseldorf:Patmos Verlag.2017b

24. Siebert op cit. 2001; 2002a-c;

_____.Kogon, Eugen. Der SSStaat. Das System der Deutschen Konzentrationslager. Frankfurt a. M. :Europäische Verlag. 1965

_____. Revolution und TheologieDas Neue in unserem Zeitalter. Ein Symposion. Frankfurter Hefte, Sept. 22 (9). 1967

_____. Der SSStaat. Das System der Deutschen Konzentrationslager. München:Wilhelm Heyne Verlag. 1995

_____.Der SS Staat. Frankfurt a. M. :Europäische Verlag. 2002.

_____.Dirks,Walter Dirks, Walter..Das schmutzige Geschäft ?Die Politik und die Verantwortung der Christen.Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.1967

_____. Die Antwort Der Mönche:Zukunftsentwürfe aus Kritischer Zeit von Benedikt, Franziskus, Dominikus Und Ignatius. Geschichtsauftrag Der Ordensstifter. Olten und Freiburg im Breisgau:Walter Verlag. 1968

_____. Der singende Stotterer Autobiographische Texte. München:Kossel Verlag. 1983a

_____. War ich ein linker Spinner? Republikanische Texte von Weimar bis Bonn. Mit einem Vorwort von Fritz Boll. München:Kösel Verlag.1983b

_____.Die Samariter und der Mann aus Samaria. Vom Umgang mit der Barmherzigkeit. Freiburg im Breisgau:Lambertus Verlag.1985

25. Kogon op. cit . 1965;1967.

_____.Adorno, Theodor W. and Eugen Kogon. 1958a. Offenbarung oder autonome Vernunft. Frankfurter Hefte:Zeitschrift für Kultur und Politik, 13 (Juni 6) 1958a: 392402.

_____. 1958b Offenbarung oder autonome Vernunft. In Frankfurter Hefte:Zeitschrift für Kultur und Politik, 13 (Juni 7) 1958b:484 498.

_____.Kogon, Eugen. Der SSStaat. Das System der Deutschen Konzentrationslager. Frankfurt a. M. :Europäische Verlag. 1965

_____. Revolution und TheologieDas Neue in unserem Zeitalter. Ein Symposion. Frankfurter Hefte, Sept. 22 (9). 1967

_____. Der SSStaat. Das System der Deutschen Konzentrationslager. München:Wilhelm Heyne Verlag. 1995

_____.Der SS Staat. Frankfurt a. M. :Europäische Verlag. 2002.

26. Leibniz, G. W. Die Theodizee von der Güte Gottes, der Freiheit des Menschen und den Ursprung des Ubels, I and II. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1996.

_____.Oelmüller, Willi (eds). 1Theodizee-Gott vor Gericht, München: Wilhelm Fink Verlag1990

_____.Worüber man nicht schweigen kann.Neue Diskussionen zur Theodizeefrage.München:Wikhelm Fink Verlag.1992

_____.Kogon op.cit .1965; 1967;1995;2002;

_____.Adorno, Theodor W. Ob nach Auschwitz noch sich leben lasse:Ein philosophisches Lesebuch. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1997

27.Siebert op. cit. 19

_____.Lortz, Joseph..Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus.Second edition 1934. _____.Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band I. Vorraussetzungen. Aufbruch. Erste Entscheidungen. Freiburg:Herder.1962A

_____.Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band II. Ausbau der Fronten. Unionsversuche. Ergebnis. Freiburg:Herder. 1962b

_____.Geschichte der Kirche. Münster:Verlag. Aschendorff. 1964

28. Bloch, Ernst.Thomas Münzer:Als Theologe der Revolution. Frankfurt a. M.:Suhrkamp Verlag 1960.

_____.A Philosophy of the Future. New York: Herder and Herder. 1970a

_____.Man o­n his Own: Essays o­n the Philosophy of Religion. New York: Herder and Herder.1970b

_____.On Karl Marx. New York: Herder and Herder 1971a;.

_____. Im Christentum steckt die Revolte. Zürich: Verlag der Arche 1971b

_____.Experimentum Mundi, Frage, Kategorien des

Herausbringens, Praxis. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1975a.

_____.Der Geist der Utopie. Frankfurt a. M.: Surhkamp Verlag.1975b

_____.Über Methode und System bei Hegel. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1975c

_____.Tübinger Einleitung in die Philosophie. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1979

_____.Erbschaft dieser Zeit, Erweiterte Ausgabe. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1985a

_____.Naturrecht und menschliche Würde. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1985b

_____.Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. Vol. I. 1985c

_____.Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. Vol. II.1985d

_____.Das Prinzip Hoffnung. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. Vol. III .1985c

_____. The Spirit of Utopia. Stanford:Stanford University Press.2000

_____.Atheism in Christianity. London:Verso .2009.

_____.Bloch, Karola, and Adelbert Reif. Denken heisst Überschreiten:In Memoriam _____.Ernst Bloch 18851977. Köln. Frankfurt a. M. :Europäische Verlag. 1978

_____.Lortz 1935; 1962a-b;1964.

29. Semashko, Leo. Mahatma Gandhi. Nonviolence Starting Point.Gandhica.By the GHA 82 coauthors of the 25 countries. Dedicated to Gandhi 150th Birth Anniversary. Anniversary.Research.Primer.Poetics.Design.Beau Basin,Mauritius: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing 2020.

_____.Heer, Friedrich , Die Dritter Kraft.Der Europäische Humanismus zwischen den Fronten des konfessionellen Zeitalters.Frankfurt amMain : Fiacher Verlag.1959.

_____.Marx, Karl. .On the Jewish Question.In Deutsch-Französische Jarbücher.Braunschweig 1843.

_____.Zweiter Entwurf zum Bürgerkrieg in Frankreich. New York:The Modern Library. 1871

_____.Capital:A Critique of Political Economy. New York:The Modern Library. 1906

_____.Zur Kritik der politischen Ökonomie. Berlin:Dietz Verlag. 1951

_____.Die Frühschriften. Stuttgart:Alfred Kröner Verlag.1953

_____. Selected Writings in Sociology and Social Philosophy. Translated by T. B. Bottomore, Foreward by Erich Fromm. New York:MacGraw Hill. 1956

_____.Parsons, Talcott.The System of Modern Societies. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.1964

_____.Societies:Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives, Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice Hall. 1965

_____. Belief, Unbelief, and Disbelief. 207-245 in The Cultyreof Unbelief and Proceeding from the First International Symposium o­n Belief Held at Rome, March 22-27, 1969, edited by Rocco Caporale and Antonio Grumelli. Berkeley:University of California Press. 1971

_____.Parsons, Talcott and Edward A. Shils. 1951. Toward a General Theory of Action. New York:Harper and Row, Publishers.

30. Exodus 20: 21-24; Leviticus 19:18; Matthew 5:38-42; Gandhi 1955;Marcuse, Herbert. Reason and Revolution:Hegel and the Rise of Social Theory. Boston:Beacon Press 1960.

_____.Soviet Marxism:A Critical Analysis. New York:Random House. 1961

_____.Eros and Civilization:A Philosophical Inquiry into Freud. New York:Vintage Books 1962.

_____.The Ideology of Death in H. Feifel (Ed),The Meaning of Death. New York.1965

Semashkoibid. 2020: 126 -127

31. Hegel,Georg.F.W.Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts.Leipzig: Philosophische Bibkiothek Band 124. 1921

_____. Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte. In Sämptliche Werke, herausgegeben von H. Glockner. Stuttgart. Band 11. 194.

32.Isaiah 9: 7-21.

_____.Küng, Hans ,Das Judentum. München : Piper Verlag 1991: 732-733,

33.Gandhiop.cit 1955.

_____.Küng, Hans ,Das Judentum. München : Piper Verlag 1991: 732-733,

34. Marcuse op. cit 1960;1961;1962;

_____.Semashko op. cit. 2020.

_____.Hitler, Adolf.Mein Kampf. Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company. 1943

_____. 1986. Secret Book, introduced. by Telford Taylor, Translated by Salvator Attanasio. New York:Grove Press. 1986

_____.Trevor-Roper, Hugh. (ed). . Final Entries 1945. The Diaries of Joseph Goebbels. New York : Avon Books. 1979

_____.Hitlers Table Talk. 1941-1944. New York City:Enigma Books 2000.

35. Stone,Oliver/ Peter Kuznik. The Untold History of the United States.You Tube / Netflix. www. oliverstone.com/untoldstory/?america-undercover. 2012,

_____.Zinn, Howard. A Peoples History of the United States. 1492-Present. New York Harper Collifs Publishers. 2003

_____.Lortz, Joseph..Katholischer Zugang zum Nationalsozialismus.Second edition. 1934

Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band I. Vorraussetzungen. Aufbruch. Erste Entscheidungen. Freiburg:Herder. 1962a

_____.62b. Die Reformation in Deutschland. Band II. Ausbau der Fronten. Unionsversuche. Ergebnis. Freiburg:Herder. 1962 b

_____.Geschichte der Kirche. Münster:Verlag. Aschendorff. 1964

_____.Küng, Hans.The Council, Reform, and Reunion with an Introduction. Garden City, NY:Image Books. 1965

_____.Menschwerdung Gottes:Eine Einführung in Hegels Theologisches Denken als Prolegomena zu einer künftigen Christologie. Freiburg:Herder Verlag. 1970

_____.Freiheit des Christen. Hamburg:Siebenstern Taschenbuch Verlag. 1972

_____.Christ Sein.München: R.Piper and Co. Verlag.1974

_____.The Church. Garden City, NY:Double Day and Co. 1976

_____. Existiert Gott? Antwort auf die Gottesfrage der Neuzeit. München:R. Piper Verlag. 1978

_____. Wegzeichen in die Zukunft. Programmatisches für eine christlichere Kirche. Reinbeck bei ;Hamburg:Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag. 1980

_____.Art and the Question of Meaning. New York:Crossroad.1981a

_____.Weg und Werk:Chronik, Essay, Bibliographie. München:Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag.1981b

_____. Ewiges Leben? München:R. Piper Verlag. 1982

_____.Christentum und Weltreligionen. München. 1984

_____.Strukturen der Kirche. Munchen:Piper Verlag. 1987

_____.1988.Private discourse with Prfessor Küng in Breslau/Wrawlav, Poland, at the occasion of a meeting of the International Hegel Society.1988

_____. Unfehlbar? Eine unerledigte Anfrage. Mit einem aktuellen Vorwort von Herbert Haag. 1München:Piper Verlag. 1989

_____.Freud and the Problem of God. New Haven:Yale University Press. 1990a

_____.Projekt Weltethos. Munchen:Piper Verlag. 1990b

_____. 1991a. World Religions:Universal Peace. Global Ethic. Tübingen:Foun

dation Global Ethic. [www. weltethos. org/pdf_dat/ausstellung_eng. pdf. ]1991a

_____. 1992. Theologie im Aufbruch:Eine ökumenische Grundlegung. München:Piper Verlag. 1992.

_____.24 Thesen zur Gottesfrage. München:Piper Ver1ag. 1993a

_____.Credo. Das Apostolische GlaubensbekenntnisZeitgenossen erklärt. München:Piper Verlag. 1993b

_____.Das Christentum. Wesen und Geschichte München :Piper Verlag. 1994a

_____.Grosse Christliche Denker, München:Piper Verlag.1994b

_____.MozartSpuren der Transzendenz. Munchen:Piper Verlag. 1998

_____.Catholic University of America. Saring the Journey . Magazine of the Cathoic University of America.Spring 2020.

36. Marx op.cit . 1972

_____.Stone/Kuznik op,cit 2012

_____.Zinn op.cit.2003

37.Habermas, Jürgen. Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit. Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft. Neuwied:Hermann Luchterhand Verlag.1962

_____.Antworten auf Herbert Marcuse. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1969

_____. 1970. Toward a Rational Society:Student Protest, Science and Politics. Boston: Beacon Press. 1970.

_____.Knowledge and Human Interests. Boston:Beacon Press. 1971

_____. Zur Logik der Sozialwissenschaften. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1973

_____. . Legitimation Crisis. Boston:Beacon Press. 1975

_____.Zur Rekonstruktion des historischen Materialismus. Frankfurt a. M. Suhrkamp Verlag. 1976

_____.Discourse with Professor Habermas at Villa Nova University, USA.1977

_____.Theorie und Praxis. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1978a

_____.Starnberg Studien I. Die gesellschaftliche Orientierung des

wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts. Frankfurt a. M:Suhrkamp Verlag. 1978b

_____.Politik, Kunst, Religion. Stuttgart:Reclam Verlag. 1978c

_____.Discourse with Professor Habermas in the IUC, Dubrovnik Yugoslavia. 1978d

_____.Stichworte zur Geistigen Situation der Zeit 1. Band:Nation und Republik.

Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1979a

_____.Stichworte zur Geistigen Situation der Zeit 2. Band:Politik und Kultur.

Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1979b

_____.Kleine Politische Schriften IIV. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1981a

_____. Modernity versus Postmodernity. In New German Critique 22:3-14. 1981b

_____. Bewusstmachende oder rettende Kritik, In Philosophisch-Politische Profile,1981c

_____.The Entwinement of Myth and Enlightenment:Rereading of Dialectic of Enlightenment. In New German Critique, 26 (Spring-Summer):13-30. 1982a

_____.Tod in Jerusalem. Am Grab von Gershom Scholemam Ende einer Ära.

Merkur Deutsche Zeitschrift für europäisches Denken, Heft 4, 36. 1982b

_____.Moralbewusstsein und kommunikatives Handeln. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1983

_____. Vorstudien und Ergänzungen zur Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag.1984a.

_____. The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume o­ne:Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Translated by Thomas McCarthy. Boston:Beacon Press. 1984b

_____. Der philosophische Diskurs der Moderne:Zwölf Vorlesungen. Frankfurft a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1985a

_____.Die Neue Unübersichtlichkeit. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag.1985b

_____. Autonomy and Solidarity:Interviews. London:Verso Verlag. 1986

_____. Eine Art Schadensabwicklung. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1987a

_____. PhilosophischPolitische Profile. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1987b

_____.The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity:Twelve Lectures. Translated by Frederick G. Lawrence. Cambridge:MIT Press. 1987c

_____. The Theory of Communicative Action. Volume Two:Lifeworld and System: A Critique of Functionalist Reason. Translated by Thomas McCarthy. Boston: Beacon Press. 1987d

_____. Nachmetaphysisches Denken. Philosophische Aufsätze. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1988a

_____. Walter Benjamin:Consciousness-Raising or Rescuing Critique in Gary Smith, [ed. ] On Walter Benjamin:Critical Essays and Recollections. Cambridge:MIT Press.1988b

_____.Die nachholende Revolution. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1990

_____.Texte und Kontexte. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1991a

_____.Erläuterungen zur Diskursethik. Frankfurt a. M:Suhrkamp Verlag. 1991b

_____.Vergangenheit als Zukunft. Zürich:Pendo Verlag. 1991c

_____. Faktizität und Geltung. Beiträge zur Diskurstheorie des Rechts und des Demokratischen Rechtsstaates. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1992a

_____.PostMetaphysical Thinking:Philosophical Essays. Cambridge:MIT Press.1992b

_____.Discourse with Professor Habermas in the Philosophical Faculty of the Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Universität, Frankfurt a. M.1992c

_____. Die Normalität einer Berliner Republik. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1995

_____. Die Einbeziehung des Anderen. Studien zur politischen Theorie. Frankfurt a. M.:Suhrkamp Verlag. 1997a

_____. Vom sinnlichen Eindruck zum symbolischen Ausdruck. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1997b

_____.Die Postnationale Konstellation, Politische Essays. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1998

_____. Wahrheit und Rechtfertigung:Philosophische Aufsätze. Frankfurt a. M.:Suhrkamp Verlag. 1999

_____.Dankesrede des Friedenspreisträgers:Glauben und Wissen Frankfurter Buchmesse. Frankfurt a. M. :Oct.2001a

_____.Die Zukunft der menschlichen Natur. Auf dem Weg zu einer liberalen Eugenik? Frankfurt a. M. : Suhrkamp Verlag. 2001b

_____. Zeit der Übergänge. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 2001c

_____.Religion and Rationality:Eassays o­n Reason, God, and Modernity. Cambridge, MA:The MIT Press. 2002

_____. Die Zeit hatte einen doppelten Boden- Der Philosoph Theodor W. Adorno in den fünfziger Jahren. Eine persönliche Notiz. In Die Zeit, Sept. 4. [www. zeit. de/2003/37/Habermas_2/Adorno. ]2003a

_____.Zeitdiagnosen:Zwölf Essays. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp. 2003b

_____. Dual Layered Time:Reflections o­n T. W. Adorno in the 1950s. In Logos:A Journal of Modern Society and Culture. 2 (4), [www. logosjournal. com/habermas. html (or) [www. logosjournal. com/issue2. 4. pdf. ]2003c.

_____. Communication and the Evolution of Society. Boston:Beacon Press. 2004a

_____. Religion braucht neue Übersetzer. Rheinischer Merkur. Deustche Wochenzeitschrift für Polik. Wirschaft. Kultur. April. 2004b

_____. Vorpolitische moralische Grundlagen eines freiheitlichen Staates, Presentation given o­n Discourse Evening in the Catholic Academy in Bavaria, Germany. 1978; 2004c

_____. Zwischen Naturalismus und Religion. Philosophische Aufsätze. Frankfurt a. M.:Suhrkamp Verlag. 2005

_____. Between Naturalism and Religion, Cambridge, MA:Polity Press. 2006a

_____. Religion in the Public Sphere. In European Journal of Philosophy, 14 (1):125. 2006b

_____.The Divided West. Cambridge. Cambridge, MA:Polity Press. 2006c

_____. Das Sprachspiel verantwortlicher Urheberschaft und das Problem der Willensfreiheit:Wie lässt sich der epistemische Dualismus mit einem o­ntologischen Monismus versöhnen? In Deutsche Zeitschrift für Philosophie. 54 (5). 2006d

_____.Ein Bewusstsein von dem was fehlt. Über Glauben und Wissen und den Defaitismus der modernen Vernunft. In Neue Zürcher Zeitung, Feb. 10.2007

_____. A 'post-secular' society- what does that mean? Reset Dialogues o­n Civilization available atwww. resetdoc. org/story/1926.2008

_____. Europe:The Faltering Project Malden, MA:Polity Press,2009.

_____.FYI-Leadership and Leitkultur, in http:://www. nytimes. com. /2010/10/29/opinion/29. Habermas. htm. October 28.2010

_____.An Awareness of What is Missing. Faith and Reason in a Post-Secular Age. Cambridge :Polity Press 2011a

_____. Zur Verfassung Europas. Ein Essay. Berlin :Suhrkamp Verlag.2011b

_____.The Crisis of the European Union. A Response. Cambridge:Poliry Press. 2012

_____.Habermas, Jürgen and Sylvia Bovenschen.Gespräch mit Herbert Marcuse. Frankfurt a. M. : Suhrkamp Verlag.1981

_____.Gespräch mit Jürgen Habermas."Das eigentliche Ziel ist die Transnationalisierung der Demokratie.'" In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte. 4/61.2014

_____.Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie. Band 1. Die okzidentale Konstellation von Glauben und Wussen;Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019 a.

_____.Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie.Banf 2. Vernünftige Freiheit. Spuren des Diskurses über Glauben und Wissen.Berlin: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019 b

_____.Habermas, Jürgen and Dieter Henrich. 1974. Zwei Reden. Aus Anlass des HegelPreises. Frankfurt a. M. : Suhrkamp Verlag. 1974.

_____.Habermas, Jürgen and Niklas Luhmann. . Theorie der Gesellschaft oder Sozialtechnologie. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1975

_____.Habermas, Jürgen and Joseph Ratzinger. 2006. The Dialectics of Secularization:On Reason and Religion, ed. by Florian Schuller, trans. by Brian McNeil. San Francisco: Ignatius Press. 2006

_____.Habermas, Jürgen/ Walter Steinmeier. . Integration oder Devolution? Über die Zukunft der Europäischen Union. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 3. 2008.

_____.Arens, Edmund..Kommunikatives Handeln und Christlicher Glaube, Ein theologischer

Diskurs mit Jürgen Habermas. Paderborn:Ferdinand Schöningh. 1997

_____.Gottesverständigung.Eine kommunikative Religionstheologie. Freiburg: Herder. 2007

_____.Alt, aber nicht fromm, in Herder Korrespondenz 63/2:79-83. 2009

_____. Letter. (unpublished ). 2012

_____.Welche Zukunft wollen wir? URL: www.theologie-und-kirche.de/arens-abschiedsvorlesung.pdf./Schweizerische Kirchen-Zeitung.2.11.2017a

_____.2017b Karl-Otto Apel. Ein Nachruf. In feinschwarz.net.Theolgisches Feuilleton.

_____.Arens, Edmund, O. John, and R. Rottländer 1991. Erinnerung, Befreiung, Solidarität, Benjamin, Marcuse, Habermas und die politische Theologie. Düsseldorf:Patmos Verlag.2017b

_____.Arens, op.cit 1997.

38. Semashkoop. cit 2020:126-127; 213, 228.

_____.Gandhiop.cit.1955

39. Baron, Ulrich. Das neue Wir. Solidaritätssuche mit Pferdefuss.In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 1 2 / 2020,, 96 100.

_____.Plamper, Jan.Das Neue Wir: Warum Migration dazu gehört.Eine andere Geschichte der Deutschen.Frankfurt a.M.: S Fischer 2019

_____.NePan, Nicholas. A Visual History of Pandemics. In Visual Capitalist ,15 March, 2020.

40. Foer, Jonathan , Safran. Wir sind das Klima!Wie wir unseren Planeten schon beim Frühstück retten können.Köln: Kiepenheuer & Witsch 2019

41. Storl, Dieter.Wir sind Geschöpfe des Waldes.Warum wir untrennbar mit den Bäumen verbunden sind.München: Gräfe und Unzer 2019

42. Plamper, op. cit. 2019.J

43. Kaufmann, Sina, Kamala / Michael Timmermann / Annemarie Botzki , Wann wenn nicht wir :Ein Extintion Rebellion Handbuch ( Hg).Frankfurt a.M.:S.Fischer 2019.

_____.Marcuse op. cit 1960;1961;1962;

_____.Baron op. cit. 96-100

_____.Semashko op. cit. 2020.

_____.Hitler, op.cit. 1943

_____.op.cit. 1986

_____.Trevor-Roper, op.cit. 1979

_____.op.cit.2000.

_____.Hartleb, Florian.Virtuelle Dimensionen des Rechtsterrorisus als neue Bedrhungslage. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 1 / 2 / 2020/67: 10-15.

_____.Müller ,Michael /Jürg Sommer /Hans-Gerd Marian, Diebrsunen Seiten im Naturschutz. In Neue Gesellschaft/ Frankfurter Hefte 1 / 2 / 2020/ 67: 31-37.

44.Baum, Gregory. 1959. Is the New Testament AntiSemitic? A Reexamination of the New Testament. Glen Rock, NJ:Deus Books, Paulist Press.

_____. 1965. Catholic Quest for Christian Unity. Glen Rock, NJ:Deus Books, Paulist Press.

_____. 1967. The Future of Belief:Debate. New York:Herder and Herder.

_____. 1968. The Credibility of the Church Today:A Reply to Charles Davis. New York:Herder and Herder.

_____. 1971. Man Becoming:God in Secular Experience. New York:Herder and Herder.

_____. 1972. New Horizons:Theological Essays. New York:Paulist Press.

_____. 1975a. Journeys:The Impact of Personal Experience o­n Religious Thought. New York:Paulist Press.

_____. 1975b. Religion and Alienation:A Theological Reading of Sociology. New York:Paulist Press.

_____. 1980a. Sociology and Human Destiny. New York:The Seabury Press.

_____. 1980b. Work and Religion. New York:The Seabury Press.

_____. 1982. The Priority of Labor:A Commentary o­n Laborem ExercensEncyclical Letter of Pope John Paul II. New York:Paulist Press International.

_____. 1991. The Church in Quebec. Ottawa:Saint Paul University, Novalis.

_____. 1994. Essays in Critical Theology, Kansas City:Sheed and Ward.

_____. 1996. The Church for Others, Protestant Theology in Communist East Germany, Grand Rapids, MI:Eerdmans Publishing Company.

_____. 2001. Nationalism, Religion and Ethics. Montreal and Kingston. London. Ithaca: McGillQueens University Press.

_____. 2002. Public Letter of Gregory Baum to Lothar Beyer, Le Devoir, Montreal.

_____. 2003. JewishChristian Dialogue under the Shadow of the IsraeliPalestinian Conflict. Théologique, 11 (12):205221.

_____. 2004. Western Islam According to Tariq Ramadan. In The Ecumenist:A Journal of Theology, Culture and Society.

_____. 2005. Amazing Church:A Catholic Theologian Remembers a Half-Century of Change. Maryknoll, New York:Orbis Books.

_____. 2007. Reading the Signs:Religious Pluralism and Economic Injustice. Ottawa, Canada: Novalis.

_____. 2009. The Theology of Tariq Ramada:A Catholic Perspective. Toronto, o­ntario, Canada:Novalis Publishing Inc.

_____.2014.Catholic Theology in French Quebec. Toronto: Regis College

_____.Baum, Gregory [ed. ] 1999. The Twentieth Century:A Theological Overview. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books.

45. Bauer. Joachim. Wie wir werden, wer wir sind.Die Entstehung des menschkichen Selbst dur Resnance. München: Blessing 2019

46. Buber, Martin. I and Thou, transl. by Ronald Gregor Smith, Edinburgh:

T. and T. Clark, 2nd Edition New York: Scribners, 1958. 1st Scribner Classics ed. New York, NY: Scribners, 2000, c1986.1937

_____.Eclipse of God, New York: Harper and Bros. Pub. 2nd Edition Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 1952

_____. 1957, Pointing the Way, transl. Maurice Friedman. New York: Harper, 1957, 2nd

Edition New York: Schocken, 1974.

_____. 1960, The Origin and Meaning of Hasidism, transl. M. Friedman, New York: Horizon Press.

_____. 1965, The Knowledge of Man, transl. Ronald Gregor Smith and Maurice Friedman, New York: Harper & Row. 2nd Edition New York, 1966.

_____. 1966, The Way of response:Martin Buber; selections from his writings, edited by N. N. Glatzer. New York: Schocken Books.

_____. 1967a, A Believing Humanism:My Testament, translation of Nachlese (Heidelberg transl. by M. Friedman, New York: Simon and Schuster.

_____. 1967b, On Judaism, edited by Nahum Glatzer and transl. by Eva Jospe and others, NewYork: Schocken Books.

_____. 1968, On the Bible:Eighteen Studies, edited by Nahum Glatzer, New York: Schocken Books.

_____. 1970a, I and Thou, a new translation with a prologue I and you and notes by Walter Kaufmann, New York: Scribner's Sons.

_____. 1970b, Mamre: essays in religion, translated by Greta Hort. Westport, Conn.:

Greenwood Press.

_____. 1970c, Martin Buber and the theater, including Martin Buber's mystery play Elijah. Edited and translated with three introductory essays by Maurice Friedman. New York, Funk & Wagnalls.

_____. 1972, Encounter; autobiographical fragments. La Salle, Ill.: Open Court.

_____. 1973a, On Zion; the history of an idea. With a new foreword by Nahum N. Glatzer.

Translated from the German by Stanley Godman. New York: Schocken Books.

_____. 1973b, Meetings. Edited with an intro. and bibliography by Maurice Friedman. LaSalle, Ill.: Open Court Pub. Co. , 3rd ed. London, New York: Routledge, 2002.

_____. 1983, A Land of Two Peoples: Martin Buber o­n Jews and Arabs, edited with commentary by Paul R. Mendes-Flohr. New York: Oxford University Press, 2nd Edition Gloucester, Mass.: Peter Smith, 1994

_____. 1985, Ecstatic Confessions, edited by Paul Mendes-Flohr; translated by Esther Cameron. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

_____. 1991a, Chinese tales:Zhuangzi, sayings and parables and Chinese ghost and love stories, translated by Alex Page; with an introduction by Irene Eber. Atlantic Highlands, N. J.: Humanities Press International.

_____. 1991b, Tales of the Hasidim, foreword by Chaim Potok. New York :Schocken Books, distributed by Pantheon.

_____. 1992, On Intersubjectivity and Cultural Creativity, edited and with an introduction by S. N. Eisenstadt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

_____.op.cit. 2007

_____. op.cit/.2012

_____.op.cit. .2.11.2017a

_____.op.cit. 2017b

_____.op.cit.1991.

_____ .op.cit. 2017b

_____.Catholic University of America. op.cit.2020.

47. Buber op. cit. 1937; 1952; 1957; 1960;1965;1966; 1967a-b;1968;1970a-b

_____.Bauer. op.cit. 2019

_____.Baron op. cit.1 2 / 2020, 96 100.

48.Hegel, Georg F.W. Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts.Leipzig: Philosophische Bibliothek Band 124. 1921

_____.Christianity: Early Theological Writings.New York: Harper Torchbooks 1948

_____. Vorlesungen über die Philosophie der Geschichte. In Sämptliche Werke, herausgegeben von H. Glockner. Stuttgart. Band 11. 1949

_____.Phänomenologie des Geistes Hamburg :Verlag Felix Meiner 1952

_____.Buber op. cit. 1937; 1952; 1957; 1960;1965;1966; 1967a-b;1968;1970a-b

_____.Bauer. op.cit. 2019

_____.Baron op. cit.1 2 / 2020, 96 100.

49. Adorno/Kogon.op. cit 1958a - b .

_____.Adorno, Theodor, Stichworte.Kritische Modelle 2.Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp Verlag1969: 20-28

_____.Habermas,Jürgen.Auch eine Geschichte der Philosophie.Band 2.Vernünftige Freiheit.Spuren des Diskourses über Glauben und Wissen.Berln: Suhrkamp Verlag 2019: 806-807.

_____. Vom Funken der Wahrheit. In Die Zeitof9.4.2015.

_____.Gordon,P. Migrants in the Profane.Critical Theory and the Concept of Secularization: New Haven 2020

Strasser, Johann,Glaiben Wissen, und die Möglichkeit globaler Verständigung.In Neue Gesellschaft / Frankfurter Hefte 1 / 2 / 2020: 73-77.

_____.Kogon, op.cit .1965; 1967; 1995; 2002;

_____.Dirks,Walter Dirks, Walter..Das schmutzige Geschäft Die Politik und die Verantwortung der Christen.Amherst, New York: Prometheus Books.1967

_____. Die Antwort Der Mönche:Zukunftsentwürfe aus Kritischer Zeit von Benedikt, Franziskus, Dominikus Und Ignatius. Geschichtsauftrag Der Ordensstifter. Olten und Freiburg im Breisgau:Walter Verlag. 1968

_____. Der singende Stotterer Autobiographische Texte. München:Kossel Verlag. 1983a

_____. War ich ein linker Spinner? Republikanische Texte von Weimar bis Bonn. Mit einem Vorwort von Fritz Boll. München:Kösel Verlag.1983b

_____.Die Samariter und der Mann aus Samaria. Vom Umgang mit der Barmherzigkeit. Freiburg im Breisgau:Lambertus Verlag.1985

_____.Adorno op. cit. 1969.

_____.Habermas op. cit,2015; 2019.

_____.Gordon op. cit. 2020

_____.Strasser op. cit2020.

50. Baron op. cit. 2020: 86-100

51.Siebert op. cit. 1965;1966; 1994; 2001;2002a-b;

52.Adorno/Kogon op. cit. 1958a-b.

53.Adorno/Kogon op. cit. 1958a-b.

_____.Habermas.op.cit. 2019 b: 806-807.

_____.Ibid. Vom Funken der Wahrheit. In Die Zeit9.4.2015

_____.AdornoTheodor W.Vernunft und Offenbarung. In T.W. _____.Adorno.Stichworte.Kritische Modelle. Frankfurt a.M. : Suhrkamp Verlag 1969: 20-28.

_____.Gordon.P.Migrants in the Profane.Critical Thery and the Concept of Secularization..New Haven 2020

54. Siebert op. cit. 1965;1966; 2001 2002a-b.

55. Kant, Immanuel.Critique of Pure Reason. New York:St. Martins Press. 1929

_____. Zum Ewigen Frieden. Düsseldorf:Drei Eulen Verlag. 1946

_____.Schriften zur Anthropologie, Geschichtsphilosophie, Politik und Pädagogik. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhramp Verlag.1968

_____.On the Foundation of Morality:A Modern Version of the Grundlegungen. Bloomington, In:Indiana University Press. 1970.

_____. Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der blossen Vernunft. Stuttgart: Philipp Reclam. 1974a

_____.Kritik der Urteilskraft. Frankfurt a. M; Suhrkamp Verlag. 1974b

_____.Was ist Aufklärung? Aufsätze zur Geschichte und Philosophie.Suhrkamp Verlag. 1975.

_____.Habermas op, cit 2019:806-807.

_____.op. cit 2015

_____.Gordon op. cit. 2020

_____.Strasserop. cit .2020

_____.Horkheimer/Adorno 2002

56. Honneth, Axel.Kritik der Macht. Reflexionsstufen einer kritischen Gesellschaftstheorie. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag.1985

_____.Die zerissene Welt des Sozialen. Sozialphilosophische Aufsätze. Frankfurt a.M. : Suhrkamp Verlag. 1990

_____.The Critique of Power. Reflective Stages in a Critical Social Theory. Cambridge, Massachusetts:The MIT Press. 1991

_____.Kommunitarismus Eine Debatte über die moralischen Grundlagen moderner Gesellschaften. Frankfurt a. M. :Campus Verlag. 1993

_____.Kampf um Anerkennung:Zur moralischen Grammatik sozialer Konflikte. Frankfurt a. M. :Suhrkamp Verlag. 1994

_____.The Struggle for Recognition:The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge, Massachusetts:The MIT Press.1995

_____. The Struggle for Recognition:The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Cambridge, MA:The MIT Press. 1996a

_____. 1996b. Die soziale Dynamik von Mißachtung Zur Ortsbestimmung einer kritischen Gesellschaftstheorie. In Mitteilungen des Instituts für Sozialforschung, 7 (Jun. ):1332. 1996b

_____. Das Andere der Gerechtigkeit:Aufsätze zur praktischen Philosophie. Frankfurt a.M. : Suhrkamp Verlag. 2000

_____. 2001a. Zur Zukunft des Instituts für Sozialforschung. In Mitteilungen des Instituts für Sozialforschung, 12 (Sept. ):5463.

_____. 2001b. The Pathologies of Individual Freedom. Hegel's Social Theory. Princeton:Princeton University Press

_____. 2002a. Befreiung aus der Mündigkeit:Paradoxien des gegenwärtigen Kapitalismus. Frankfurt a. M. :Campus Verlag.

_____. 2002b. Vorbemerkung. In Mitteilungen des Instituts für Sozialforschung, 13 (Sept. ):4750.

_____. 2004. Anerkennung als Ideology, In West End I, Jahrgang, Heft 1, Frankfurt a. M.

_____. 2005. Verdinglichung:Eine anerkennungstheoretische Studie. Frankfurt a. M:Suhrkamp Verlag.

_____.2007a.Reification.A New Look at an Old Idea.Oxford: Oxford University Press.

_____. 2007b. Pahologien der Vernunft:Geschichte und Gegenwart der Kritischen Theorie, Frankfurt a. M:Suhrkamp Verlag.

_____. 2008. Disrespect. The Normative Foundations of Critical Theory. Cambridge :Polity Press

_____. 2009. Patologies of Reason. o­n the Legacy of Critical Theory. :New York:Columbia University Press.

_____. 2011. 9. /The Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School and the Theory of Recognition. Dialogue with Olivier Voiral. In Neue Gsellschaft/ Franfurter Hefte. 12/56

_____. 2012. Reification. A New Look at an Old Idea. Oxford:Oxford University Press

Honneth, Axel and Hans Joas. 2002. Kommunikatives Handeln:Beiträge zu Jürgen Habermas' Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns. Frankfurt a. M.: Suhrkamp Verlag.

_____.Adorno/Kogon 1958a-b

_____.Habermasop cit . 2019.

57. Horkheimer, Max.Geschichte und Psychologie. In Zeitschrift für Sozialfroschung herausgegeben vom Institute für Sozialforschung Frankfurt M..Jahrgang I 1932.Doppelheft 1 / 2.Leipzig: Verlag von C.L. Hirschfeld 1932(1/2):125144.

_____.Bemerkungen über Wissenschaft und Krise, In Zeitschrift für Sozialfroschung herausgegeben vom Institute für Sozialforschung Frankfurt M..Jahrgang I .Doppelheft 1 / 2.Leipzig: Verlag von C.L. Hirschfeld 1932

_____. Zu Theodor Haecker:Der Christ und die Geschichte. In Zeischrift für Socialforschung 5.1936

.On the Critique of Instrumental Reason.New York 1947

_____.Letzte Spur von TheologiePaul Tillichs Vermächtnis. In Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 1966

_____.Werk und Wirken Paul Tillichs Ein Gedenkbuch. Stuttgart:Evangelisches Verlag 1967a.

_____.Zur Kritik der instrumentellen Vernunft. Aus den Vorträgen und Aufzeichnungen seit Kriegsende. Frankfurt am Main. :S. Fischer Verlag.1967b

_____.Kritische Theorie.Frankfurt am Main 1968

_____.Bemerkungen über Wissenschaft und Krise. In Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung, München:Kösel-Verlag. 1970a

_____. Geschichte und Psychologie. In Mitteilungen des Instituts für Sozialforschung. 1970b

_____.Kritische Theorie:Eine Dokumentation. Frankfurt a. M. :Fischer Bücherei. 1970c

_____. Die Sehnsucht nach dem ganz Anderen. Ein Interview mit Kommentar von Helmut Gumnior. Hamburg, Furche Verlag. 1970d

_____.Ott, Michael. 2001. Max Horkheimer's Critical Theory of Religion:The Meaning of Religion in the Struggle for Human Emancipation. Lanham MD:University Press of America 2001

_____.The Notion of the totally 'Other' and its Conseqence in the Critical Thoery of Religion and the Rational Choice Theory of Religion In W. Goldstein (ed). Marx,Critical Theory and Religion:A Critique of Rational Choice. Leiben:Brill 2006

_____.Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy. London:Oxford University Press. 1969

_____.Das Heilige. Über das Irrationale in der Idee des Göttlichen und sein Verhältniszum Rationalen. München:Beck. 1991

_____.Gandhi, M.K.My Religion. Agmdabad,India:Navajvan Piblishing House.December 1955 1955.

58. Horkheimer, Max.Notizen 1950-1969 und Dämmerung.Notizen in Deutschland. Frankfurt a.M. :S Fischer Verlag 1974 :96-97

_____.Horkheimer/ Adorno 2002

_____.Habermas op, cit 2019:806-807.

_____.op. cit 2015

_____.Gordon op. cit. 2020

_____.Strasserop. cit .2020

_____.Horkheimer/Adorno 2002

 

 

 

Finish

 

Edited by Karen Pilarski



Up
© Website author: Leo Semashko, 2005; © designed by Roman Snitko, 2005